File Name: theory of reasoned action and planned behavior .zip
Metrics details. Yet, little is known about pathways to participation in organized exercise among Hispanics.
Internet banking acceptance in Malaysia based on the theory of reasoned action. Abu Shanab II ; J. Michael Pearson III. Address for correspondence. The theory of reasoned action originally introduced in the field of Social Psychology has been widely used to explain individuals' behaviour.
The theory postulates that individuals' behaviour is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influence an individual's intention to use a technology based on the theory of reasoned action.
We used Internet banking as the target technology and Malaysian subjects as the sampling frame. A principal component analysis was used to validate the constructs and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. As expected, the results supported the theory's proposition as that an individuals' behavioural intention to use Internet banking is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm.
Based on the findings, theoretical and practical implications were offered. Keywords: theory of reasoned action, Internet banking, technology acceptance. The theory of reasoned action TRA Fishbein and Ajzen, , originally introduced in the field of Social Psychology, has been widely used to explain individuals behaviour.
The TRA hypothesizes that behaviour is predicted by an individual's intention to engage in a given behaviour. Intention, in turn, is predicted by two factors, the individual's attitude towards the outcome of the behaviour and by the opinions of the person's social environment, which is called the subjective norm Fishbein and Ajzen, Attitude toward the behaviour reflects an individual's evaluation or general feeling toward a target behaviour.
It indicates an individual's positive or negative evaluation about performing the behaviour. The attitude toward behaviour is a product of beliefs about the behaviour and the individual's evaluation of the outcome resulting from that behaviour. The theory postulates that the intention to perform a behaviour will be higher when the individual has positive evaluation of performing the behaviour Ajzen, Subjective norm refers to an individual's perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform a target behaviour.
The subjective norm is a composite of normative beliefs about a certain behaviour and the individual's motivation to comply with relevant others Fishbein and Ajzen, Normative beliefs indicate one's perception of the influence of opinion among reference groups while motivation to comply indicates the extent the individual wants to comply with the wishes of the referent other Mathieson, The theory suggests that people often act based on their perception of what others think they should do, and their intention to adopt a behaviour is potentially influenced by people close to them.
Figure 1 diagrams the relationships. TRA has been widely applied in a variety of research settings, from predicting knowledge sharing intentions Bock et al. The theory has also been used in the information system field Loiacono et al. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that influence an individual's intention to use a technology based on the theory of reasoned action. As proposed in the theory of reasoned action, we hypothesized that attitude towards Internet banking and subjective norm positively affect an individual's intention to use Internet banking.
The research model for this study is shown in Figure 2. Based on the theory of reasoned action as shown in the research model above, two hypotheses were proposed. Hypothesis 1: Attitude toward Internet banking positively affects the intention to use the technology. Hypothesis 2: Subjective norm positively affects the intention to use Internet banking. Most researchers confirmed the ability of the model to predict behavioural intention to use a certain technology.
A study by Liker and Sindi involving accountants at the two largest accounting and audit firms in the U. Interestingly, they found that attitude did not significantly influence intention to use a expert system.
TRA has also been used to examine differences in pre-adoption and post-adoption beliefs and attitudes. Shop-Bot is an intelligent agent that informs buyers which Internet retailer gives the best price for a specific product.
Shih and Fang used TRA to determine whether attitude and subjective norms would influence an individuals' intention to adopt internet banking.
They found that consumer attitude and specific network attributes had a significant relationship with behavioural intention, while subjective norms did not. The TRA has also been used as a framework to analyze the effects of interventions on behaviour. Wu used the theory to assess the underlying factors that can be used to encourage executives toward promoting the strategic role of IT in process reengineering.
The results revealed that changes in attitude i. Kolekofski and Heminger used the TRA as a framework to explore the beliefs and attitudes that influence intentions to share information in an organisation.
The results of the study identified a number of beliefs that influenced attitude. Three types of attitudes that influence workers' intention to share information emerged from the analysis. They are worker attitudes toward the ownership versus stewardship of organisational information, the instrumentality of sharing and the interpersonal feelings of engaging in the potential information-sharing relationships. In another study, Bock et al. They found that attitude towards and subjective norms as related to knowledge sharing affected an individuals' intention to share knowledge.
Loiacono et al. Through a rigorous development process, they were able to identify twelve dimensions that had strong measurement validity. Table 1 summarizes the studies discussed above. Business students and MBAs at four public universities in West Malaysia were subjects for this study. We used questionnaires as the method of data collection. All items intended to measure the variables in this study i.
The data were collected with the help of professors, who distributed the questionnaires to students in their class. Factor analysis was performed to assess the validity of the construct and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data.
We distributed questionnaires to the targeted respondents. About 86 percent of the questionnaires were returned. Out of returned questionnaires, responses were from current users of Internet banking. We excluded these responses. We believe factors that affect an individual's intention to use a technology might be different among users and non-users.
By grouping both users and non-users together, the validity of the findings might be affected. Therefore, in this study we analyzed responses from non-users only.
The final count for this study was after dropping 21 missing data cases and responses from users. Table 2 provides the respondents' demographic profile. Majority of the respondents were female representing 79 percent of the total respondents. The mean age of the respondents was about 22 years old. Fifty percent of them were Malay, 42 percent were Chinese, 5 percent were Indian and 3 percent were others. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Inspection of the correlation matrix showed that all coefficients are more than 0.
The Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin value is 0. Barlett's test of sphericity Bartlett, was significant 0. As shown in Table 3 , all items loaded as expected on their respective factor. The three factors namely attitude, social influence, and intention respectively explained The items were also subjected to the reliability test.
Having confirmed the construct validity and the instrument reliability, we ran multiple regression analysis. Table 4 summarizes the regression results. Variance inflation factor VIF is commonly used to detect any collinearity problem Stevens, As a guideline, a VIF greater than 10 indicates a multicollinearity problem Myers, An examination of VIF 1. As illustrated in Table 4 , the F statistic for the final model is Attitude effect on the intention is higher as compared to the subjective norm on intention as indicated in its larger standardized beta coefficient.
Overall, attitude and subjective norm together explain 45 percent of the variance in the behavioural intention. In this study, we have attempted to empirically test a research model based on the theory of reasoned action using Internet banking as the target technology. As expected, the results have supported the theory's proposition that individuals' behavioural intention to use Internet banking is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm.
The results indicate the applicability and ability of the theory of reasoned action to predict adoption intentions, in this study's case within different sampling frame i. The results of this study have several practical implications. A significant positive relationship between attitude and behavioural intention suggests that positive attitude about Internet banking could influence individuals to use Internet banking.
Banks can create a positive attitude amongst its customer towards Internet banking by promoting its usefulness, ease of use, compatibility to their value, and image Md Nor and Pearson, Consistent with findings in other empirical studies e. Banks may want to explore promotional activities to promote the technology. Md Nor and Pearson in their study on Internet banking acceptance have found that friends, family, and peers have a positive influence on individuals to accept the technology.
Thus, promotional activities such as advertisement and referral plan should target these groups. As with any study, there are limitations to this research.
First, one potential limitation of this study is the use of student subjects. Although students are good surrogates for banking customers because they typically are current banking customers, questions remain concerning the generalizability of the results to a larger population.
This may bias the result in term of gender's effect on behavioural intention. Third, we did not differentiate between undergraduate and graduate MBA students. The inclusion of graduate students in the sample frame may bias the findings, as MBA students may be more experienced in internet usage i.
The Theory of Planned Behavior TPB started as the Theory of Reasoned Action in to predict an individual's intention to engage in a behavior at a specific time and place. The theory was intended to explain all behaviors over which people have the ability to exert self-control. The key component to this model is behavioral intent; behavioral intentions are influenced by the attitude about the likelihood that the behavior will have the expected outcome and the subjective evaluation of the risks and benefits of that outcome. The TPB has been used successfully to predict and explain a wide range of health behaviors and intentions including smoking, drinking, health services utilization, breastfeeding, and substance use, among others. The TPB states that behavioral achievement depends on both motivation intention and ability behavioral control. It distinguishes between three types of beliefs - behavioral, normative, and control.
In psychology , the theory of planned behavior abbreviated TPB is a theory that links beliefs to behavior. The theory states that there are three core components, namely; attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, which together shape an individual's behavioral intentions. In turn, behavioral intention is assumed to be the most proximal determinant of human social behavior. The concept was proposed by Icek Ajzen to improve on the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action by including perceived behavioral control. The theory of planned behavior was proposed by Icek Ajzen through his article "From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior.
The Islamic rural banks have the potential to grow in Indonesia. The descriptive and structural equation model analyses were used to analyze the data. A random sampling technique is adopted with a sample size of consumers of the Islamic rural banks. The results found that the Sharia system compliance, promotion, services, attitude, subjective norms and intention variables have a significant effect on the use of services at Islamic rural banks.
Two closely associated theories — The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior — suggest that a person's health behavior is determined by their intention to perform a behavior. A person's intention to perform a behavior behavioral intention is predicted by 1 a person's attitude toward the behavior, and 2 subjective norms regarding the behavior. Subjective norms are the result of social and environmental surroundings and a person's perceived control over the behavior. Generally, positive attitude and positive subjective norms result in greater perceived control and increase the likelihood of intentions governing changes in behavior. Subjective norms can be used to describe the behaviors of healthcare providers, patients, care providers, and others in the community. These theories have been used to guide health promotion and disease prevention asthma counseling and treatment compliant, tobacco use interventions, and anti-drug media campaigns, among other topics. Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice Document Provides information about useful theories for health behavior change and health education practice.
Statistical reviews of the theories of reasoned action TRA and planned behavior TPB applied to exercise are limited by methodological issues including insufficient sample size and data to examine some moderator associations. We found that: a exercise was most strongly associated with intention and perceived behavioral control; b intention was most strongly associated with attitude; and c intention predicted exercise behavior, and attitude and perceived behavioral control predicted intention. Also, the time interval between intention to behavior; scale correspondence; subject age; operationalization of subjective norm, intention, and perceived behavioral control; and publication status moderated the size of the effect. Google Translate. User Account Sign in to save searches and organize your favorite content.
The theory of reasoned action TRA or ToRA aims to explain the relationship between attitudes and behaviors within human action. It is mainly used to predict how individuals will behave based on their pre-existing attitudes and behavioral intentions. An individual's decision to engage in a particular behavior is based on the outcomes the individual expects will come as a result of performing the behavior. Developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in , the theory derived from previous research in social psychology , persuasion models, and attitude theories. Fishbein's theories suggested a relationship between attitude and behaviors the A-B relationship. However, critics estimated that attitude theories were not proving to be good indicators of human behavior [ citation needed ].
Internet banking acceptance in Malaysia based on the theory of reasoned action. Abu Shanab II ; J. Michael Pearson III. Address for correspondence.
This paper argues that the predictive validity of the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour could be enhanced by considering key ideas from goal theories. Suggestions are made about self-report measures and computations that would permit greater use of these ideas in future research. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
PDF | This paper summarizes the results of published studies that have applied the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior to the.Abram G. 08.12.2020 at 12:47
The theory of planned behavior introduced perceived behavioral control as an additional predictor of intentions. In circumstances where.Donatela V. 10.12.2020 at 18:55
PDF | Research in social psychology has extensively referenced and used Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to predict and.