File Name: list large and medium food industry in ethiopia .zip
Africa is closely watched as the next big growth market — a description that has persisted for a while. In a study of six key countries drawn from different sub-regions, the authors examined three primary categories of levers that could translate digital technology uptake into development and inclusive growth: jobs enabled by digital platforms; institutional drivers necessary for digital success; and the foundational digital potential of the country.
Ethiopia is strategically located in the Horn of Africa. The country is home to approximately million people. The land-locked country is renowned for its beautiful landscapes with numerous rivers, jungles, fertile land, and the Great Rift Valley. Being a landlocked country, Ethiopia uses Djibouti's seaport for its trading activities.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The chemical industry is more diverse than virtually any other industry in the United States. Harnessing basic ingredients, the industry 1 produces a plethora of products not usually seen or used by consumers but that are essential components of, or are required to manufacture, practically every consumer and industrial product Box Many chemical industry products are intermediates, and chemical company customers are often other chemical companies.
Several companies in this industry are also at the forefront of emerging biotechnology industries. According to the American Chemical Society , the industry's more than 70, different registered chemical products are developed, manufactured, and marketed by more than 9, companies. The chemical industry is the third-largest manufacturing sector in the nation, representing approximately 10 percent of all U. Eight standard industrial classification codes are used by the U.
Department of Commerce to categorize chemical companies. The categories are industrial inorganic chemicals; plastics, materials, and synthetics; drugs; soap, cleaners, and toilet goods; paints and allied products; industrial organic chemicals; agricultural chemicals; and miscellaneous chemical products.
Total revenues of the U. It also ranks as the largest manufacturing sector in terms of production and sales 3 and employs about 1 million people, roughly the same number as the automotive sector.
The United States is the world's largest producer of chemicals. Countries that rank next in production are Japan, Germany, and France. In terms of exports, Germany is currently the global leader. The United States ranks second, capturing approximately 14 percent of total exports worldwide American Chemical Society, In the case of the chemical industry, the committee focused its examination of environmental metrics on the production of commodity and specialty chemicals and polymers.
Excluded in the analysis are high-value materials such as cosmetics, food additives, and health care products, including pharmaceuticals, which account for a significant fraction of the industry's sales.
The energy and materials demands and waste generation associated with these high-value materials are considerably smaller than those for commodity and specialty chemicals. However, the metrics discussed in this chapter would also be relevant to production of the high-value materials. Another segment of the industry not covered in this chapter is the emerging area of biochemical processing, which may require very different environmental performance metrics.
Chemical products result from chemical processes, which are a complex combination of reaction, distillation, absorption, filtration, extraction, drying, and screening operations. For cost-cutting purposes, most chemical processes must be efficient, and so the design of many production operations is focused on controlling and reducing losses of precious materials. Hence, ecoefficiency, including avoiding releases to land, water, or air, is critical to the industry's economic survival.
While every chemical process is unique, most can be generalized to a flow diagram, as shown in Figure The common driver of environmental performance in the chemical industry, like the automotive industry, is regulation. Public and community concerns about the performance of chemical manufacturers particularly following negative publicity associated with contaminated waste sites such as Love Canal or chemical accidents such as the tragedy in Bhopal, India led the industry to establish a set of minimum environmental performance standards.
The program commits CMA member companies to continuously improve health and safety by implementing six codes of management practice: community awareness and emergency response, pollution prevention, process safety, distribution, employee health and safety, and product stewardship. A centerpiece of Responsible Care is the establishment of community advisory panels in locales where member companies have operations. For related reasons, some recent environmental performance improvements in the chemical industry have been motivated by the desire to gain a competitive advantage.
Environmental metrics in the chemical industry fall into two broad categories: those related to process efficiencies, such as yield, and those related to product stewardship.
These are summarized in the flow chart shown in Figure However, to facilitate comparison with the other industries analyzed in this report, the chemical industry metrics are discussed in terms of manufacturing process and product performance. As in the automotive sector, environmental performance in the chemical industry is monitored and guided by environmental staff, but ultimate responsibility lies with the site operations manager.
However, because of the industry's commitment in to a set of basic environmental standards Box , many companies have driven a sense of environmental responsibility throughout their corporate structures. Within the industry's manufacturing operations, this has resulted in an ongoing effort to incorporate metrics into decision making and to continually look for ways to refine current metrics and their uses.
Companies like DuPont have adopted the goals of zero waste and zero emissions to drive the reuse and recycling of materials to minimize the need for treatment or disposal and to conserve resources. The drive toward zero emissions gives priority to those emissions that pose the greatest potential risk to health or the environment. In some cases this zero discharge approach has led to the development of new processes that eliminate the need for certain chemicals as raw materials or as by-products.
In others it has led to changes in management practices. For example, Monsanto spun off Solutia as a traditional chemical company to focus on biotechnology. Monsanto has made sustainable development the cornerstone of its environmental policy and has begun to develop goals and metrics in line with several sustainability principles Magretta, The policy has helped counterbalance public concerns about Monsanto's efforts to create genetically modified crops for improved food production.
In the Chemical Manufacturers Association CMA launched Responsible Care in response to public concerns about the manufacture and use of chemicals. Through Responsible Care, member companies support efforts to improve the industry's responsible management of chemicals. Responsible Care is an obligation of membership in CMA and requires member companies to. As with the automotive sector, one of the chemical industry's primary environmental concerns is emissions from its manufacturing operations.
These are regulated by federal, state, and local laws. Although total weight is appropriate for measuring continuous improvement, it does not take into account different production levels at various facilities. This metric would be more useful if expressed as emissions per mass of product. However, normalizing emissions in terms of mass of product would hide the impact of vertical integration a key factor in chemical manufacturing and would fail to account for the value of the product to society.
As refinements to emissions metrics and other environmental performance metrics are made, it would be worth considering normalization against dollar value of product or, better still, dollar of value added to society. The latter is difficult to determine but would perhaps be more appropriate for sustainable-development discussions. The chemical industry has developed a variety of metrics relating to "reportable releases. Required reports such as TRI are used in the industry to learn about the performance of competitors.
Equally important, TRI can be used to identify chemical companies that are having problems with their emissions and which may therefore be in the market for innovative products or approaches that reduce them. Reportable release data can be very confusing in the absence of additional analysis. Several companies, including Dow, DuPont, Monsanto, and Union Carbide, have developed simplified scoring systems that divide this reporting into three categories of significance related to human health.
Metrics on all three categories are used internally within the companies for decision-making purposes. The most significant category is reported publicly as incidents of releases per year. Another improvement in emissions metrics relates to predicting toxic dispersion or the potential for toxic dispersion.
In the case of airborne emissions, some in the chemical industry are using models to predict the concentrations of pollutants that may occur over a given distance or area. Models are also used to evaluate the reliability, quality, or risk associated with a supplier or as a factor in assessing risks related to potential mergers or acquisitions.
In addition, they are. Ideally, emissions metrics should allow one to rank environmental and health risks. This would require a weighting system that takes into account the effects of a range of factors, such as persistent bioaccumulative toxicity, ozone depletion, global warming, atmospheric and surface water acidification, human health effects, photochemical ozone generation, aquatic oxygen demand, and aquatic toxicity.
One current effort to address this situation is a system of potency metrics developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, a U. While a significant step forward, this method can be further improved if modified to weight various chemicals with regard to method of disposal air, water, landfills, deep-well injection, public treatment facilities, or incineration and their health exposure "pathway" i. The potential for a catastrophic chemical release is a major concern of the chemical industry. While there are too few such events for metrics to be applicable, both environmental laws and the Occupational Safety and Health Act require defining a "worst case" and a "more likely" release scenario for a catastrophe and reporting that to the community.
Chemical plumes, incinerators, noise, landfills, regulated outfalls, remediation sites, and transportation accidents can create concern among the public. Community complaints and violations of state or federal regulations are tracked and dealt with by external affairs groups and community advisory panels according to CMA guidelines. Some sites try to anticipate concerns by conducting public opinion surveys about "environmental quality.
Two types of materials are generally tracked throughout the chemical industry: those intended for inclusion in the product "raw materials" and all other materials purchased, including "support materials" e.
In this context the waste ratio Box ,. These are categories used by Imperial Chemical Industries, a U. White and Zinkl provide a more complete listing and summary of possible criteria for such weightings. In assessing potential harm the environmental burden system cannot be used to establish the impact of wastes sent to landfills.
This is in keeping with the company's philosophy that nothing should be landfilled unless it is safe to do so.
A variation on this metric is the material efficiency ratio, or the amount of product sold divided by the amount of all materials purchased, sometimes including packaging Box Waste and other losses are included in the ratio to the extent they are known. Some who prefer this latter metric feel that tracking. The waste ratio was developed by 3M to encourage conversion of wastes into byproducts residuals that are productively used in manufacturing and the reduction of waste.
Because waste is considered to be a sign of inefficient production, the ratio provides an indicator of waste generation as well as product and materials loss. Some, however, prefer the material efficiency ratio over the waste ratio because of the lack of agreement about a definition of "waste. Resolving the lack of clarity about the definition of a waste might be a useful refinement of metrics such as these but could prove difficult and costly in a materials-intensive sector like the chemical industry.
Materials intensity metrics are generally the most useful for decision making in the chemical industry. Yield, first-pass first-quality FPFQ yield, process "uptime," and waste per mass of product are monitored daily to ensure consistency of operations. Troubleshooting is called for if there are changes in these measurements' short-term averages i. More serious actions, such as improvement of process equipment and process control, can be triggered by changes in the intermediate-term i.
Stable long-term averages, along with atomic stoichiometric and materials efficiency, are factors in designing new technology. Yield is the ratio of the amount of product sold to the amount of product that should have been produced for sale based on the purchase of raw materials and assuming no waste, no side reactions "perfect" control of chemistry. It is usually expressed as a percent.
Yield data can signal the need for a variety of specific actions Box A technical engineer might analyze the reasons that yield is less than percent and allocate "blame" to equipment problems, operating problems, and basic weaknesses of the production process. This information could then be used by. FPFQ yield describes the highest-quality product possible without resorting to any capture and recycle of potentially valuable preproduct.
Yield is the single most important indicator of environmental efficiency, while FPFQ yield is the dominant metric for effective use of manufacturing capital equipment.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The chemical industry is more diverse than virtually any other industry in the United States. Harnessing basic ingredients, the industry 1 produces a plethora of products not usually seen or used by consumers but that are essential components of, or are required to manufacture, practically every consumer and industrial product Box Many chemical industry products are intermediates, and chemical company customers are often other chemical companies. Several companies in this industry are also at the forefront of emerging biotechnology industries.
Thankfully, the incidence of COVID in Uganda is very low in comparison to other countries— the country has so far recorded cases, with 63 recoveries, and no COVID related deaths as of this writing. Indeed, early on, Uganda adopted a number of containment measures to curb the spread of the virus, including the closure of schools, restrictions on internal and international travel, use of hand sanitizer, improved handwashing stations, social distancing, and even lockdown, among others. While these measures may have contributed to the successful reining in of the virus, those same restrictions have hit business operations hard. Indeed, the results suggest that lockdown measures have reduced business activity by more than half. In terms of sectors, we find that businesses in agriculture have experienced the largest constraints in access to both inputs and markets for outputs due to control measures such as transport restrictions, quarantine, social distancing, and bans on weekly markets. These preventive measures have resulted in an increase in operating expenses for businesses that continued to stay open. Consequently, a majority of micro and small businesses, particularly in the service sector, predict they will have to close within one to three months if the pandemic persists and current restrictions are maintained Table 1.
Contents. Page No. List of Tables Distribution of large and Medium Scale Manufacturing Industries by Regional Basic Wages and Salaries, Commission, Bonuses, Allowances, Food and E.F.Y. - Ethiopian Fiscal Year the use of manual labour or machines and is usually carried out systematically with.
The soils of Ethiopia can be classified into five principal types. The first type is composed of euritic nitosols and andosols and is found on portions of the Western and Eastern highlands. These soils are formed from volcanic material and, with proper management, have medium to high potential for rain-fed agriculture. The second group of soils, eutric cambisols and ferric and orthic luvisols , are found in the Simien plateau of the Western Highlands. They are highly weathered with a subsurface accumulation of clay and are characterized by low nutrient retention, surface crusting, and erosion hazards.
Dairy Pdf the discretion of Dairy Tech, Inc. Today Missouri dairy producers are producing more milk with fewer cows, but the number of dairy operations and cows are decreasing. Consider the following 10 dairy facts, most of which are common to all forms of dairy farming: 1.
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