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Decreolization is a postulated phenomenon whereby over time a creole language reconverges with the lexifier from which it originally derived. Decreolization is a process of language change a creole language may undergo when in contact with its lexifier. As languages remain in contact over time, they typically influence one another, especially if one holds higher linguistic prestige.
Pidgins and creoles are the focus of this article. Pidgins and creoles are new languages that develop in language contact situations because of a need for communication among people who do not share a common language. A pidgin continues to be used primarily as a second language for intergroup communication, whereas a creole has become the mother tongue of a particular group of speakers. The lexicon of a pidgin or creole is derived from the various languages originally in contact, with the majority usually coming from one particular language, called the lexifier. However, the grammar of a pidgin or creole is different from that of the lexifier or any of the other contributing languages.
This report by Dell Hymes summarizes issues raised at a conference convened by the Council at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, to better understand the historical development, the grammatical and lexical evolutions, and the social uses of pidgin and creole languages. Though he highlights how social science can better inform research on pidginization and creolization, Hymes identifies knowledge gaps, among them the nature of the relationship between these languages and national identity, and more broadly the lack of historical and social scientific knowledge of this topic. In analyzing historical change and in describing present structure in language, linguists often find it possible to take social factors for granted. During the past decade there has been a notable growth of interest and information concerning such languages, whose implications have not yet been widely recognized. For these reasons an international conference was organized to encourage research on situations of pidginization and creolization, and call attention to its importance. The conference was cosponsored by the committee and the University of the West Indies, which has been the principal site of the development of creole studies in the past decade, and was held at the campus of the University in Mona, Jamaica, on April 9—12, By meeting in Jamaica, the conference was able to benefit from the participation of a number of Caribbean scholars for whom creolized languages are of personal and practical, as well as theoretical, importance.
Nigerian Pidgin hereafter NP has assumed elaborated roles and functions, gaining new grounds in different sociolinguistic domains as a result of its sustained social expansion process. One of the consequences of this increased dynamism of NP is the development of lexical items into grammatical markers which is an expected natural process. In this paper, we examine language-internal mechanisms that transform lexical items into morphosyntactic items either for semantic value, creativity, expressivity or routinization. Our basic argument is that grammaticalization in NP is not contact-induced but a language-internal phenomenon, which reveals that NP has both a synchronic and diachronic existence that are imperative in evolving its unique grammar.. Mensah, E.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 10 march Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them. Jacques Arends. Pieter Muysken. Norval Smith.
The word pidgin refers to a language used as a means of communication between people who do not share a common language. The word pidgin derives from a mispronunciation of the English word business. When a pidgin develops into a more complex language and becomes the first language of a community, it is called a creole. Creoles typically arise as the result of contact between the language of a dominant group and that of a subordinate group, as happened as the result of European trade and colonization. The earliest reference to a creole language is to a Portuguese-based creole spoken in Senegal.
Стратмор виновато улыбнулся. - Сегодня утром Дэвид рассказал мне о ваших планах.
Парень был уже мертв, когда прибыла скорая. Они пощупали пульс и увезли его, оставив меня один на один с этим идиотом-полицейским. Странно, - подумал Беккер, - интересно, откуда же взялся шрам. Но он тут же выбросил эту мысль из головы и перешел к главному.
Над Форт-Мидом высоко в небе сияла луна, и серебристый свет падал в окно, лишь подчеркивая спартанскую меблировку. Что же я делаю. - подумал Бринкерхофф. Мидж подошла к принтеру и, забрав распечатку очередности задач, попыталась просмотреть ее в темноте.
За. - Ваши планы относительно Цифровой крепости… они рухнули. Стратмор покачал головой: - Отнюдь .
Ей почти удалось проскользнуть внутрь, и теперь она изо всех сил пыталась удержать стремившиеся захлопнуться створки, но на мгновение выпустила их из рук. Створки стали стремительно сближаться. Стратмор попытался их удержать, но не сумел.
Pidgins and creoles complicate the everyday idea of what a language is, what a dialect is, and where one language stops and another begins.