File Name: analyzing and reporting focus group results .zip
Published on September 6, by Jack Caulfield. Revised on August 14,
Published on September 6, by Jack Caulfield. Revised on August 14, Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data. It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts. The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes — topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. There are various approaches to conducting thematic analysis, but the most common form follows a six-step process:. However, thematic analysis is a flexible method that can be adapted to many different kinds of research.
Table of contents When to use thematic analysis Different approaches to thematic analysis Familiarization Coding Generating themes Reviewing themes Defining and naming themes Writing up. Some types of research questions you might use thematic analysis to answer:. To answer any of these questions, you would collect data from a group of relevant participants and then analyze it. Thematic analysis allows you a lot of flexibility in interpreting the data, and allows you to approach large data sets more easily by sorting them into broad themes.
However, it also involves the risk of missing nuances in the data. Ask yourself: Does my theoretical framework give me a strong idea of what kind of themes I expect to find in the data deductive , or am I planning to develop my own framework based on what I find inductive? The first step is to get to know our data. This might involve transcribing audio , reading through the text and taking initial notes, and generally looking through the data to get familiar with it.
Next up, we need to code the data. An extract from one interview looks like this:. Each code describes the idea or feeling expressed in that part of the text. At this stage, we want to be thorough: we go through the transcript of every interview and highlight everything that jumps out as relevant or potentially interesting. As well as highlighting all the phrases and sentences that match these codes, we can keep adding new codes as we go through the text.
These codes allow us to gain a a condensed overview of the main points and common meanings that recur throughout the data. Themes are generally broader than codes. In our example, we might start combining codes into themes like this:.
Other codes might become themes in their own right. We want to create potential themes that tell us something helpful about the data for our purposes. Now we have to make sure that our themes are useful and accurate representations of the data. Here, we return to the data set and compare our themes against it. Are we missing anything? Are these themes really present in the data?
What can we change to make our themes work better? If we encounter problems with our themes, we might split them up, combine them, discard them or create new ones: whatever makes them more useful and accurate.
Defining themes involves formulating exactly what we mean by each theme and figuring out how it helps us understand the data. Like all academic texts, writing up a thematic analysis requires an introduction to establish our research question, aims and approach. We should also include a methodology section, describing how we collected the data e. The results or findings section usually addresses each theme in turn.
Finally, our conclusion explains the main takeaways and shows how the analysis has answered our research question. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Methodology How to do thematic analysis. How to do thematic analysis Published on September 6, by Jack Caulfield. Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services Trustpilot.
Is this article helpful? He writes and edits for Scribbr, and reads a lot of books in his spare time. Other students also liked. An introduction to qualitative research Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data to understand concepts, opinions or experiences. Inductive vs. Deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory.
Both approaches are often used in research. What is discourse analysis? Discourse analysis is used to study language in social context. It focuses on the purposes and effects of written and spoken communication.
What is your plagiarism score? Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. The facts keep changing — it used to be called global warming. Uncertainty Acknowledgement of climate change Distrust of experts Changing terminology. Uncertainty Leave it to the experts Alternative explanations. Changing terminology Distrust of scientists Resentment toward experts Fear of government control. Incorrect facts Misunderstanding of science Biased media sources.
Richard Krueger offers a rich and valuable discussion of focus group analysis that is sure to become a major guide in future focus group efforts. Analysis of focus group data is different from analysis of data collected through other qualitativeMoreRichard Krueger offers a rich and valuable discussion of focus group analysis that is sure to become a major guide in future focus group efforts. Analysis of focus group data is different from analysis of data collected through other qualitative methodologies and this presents new challenges to researchers. This book overviews important principles guiding focus group research, suggests a systematic and verifiable analysis strategy. Krueger is not doctrinaire: he offers multiple approaches and invites others to share their strategies for analysis. The book is helpful for academic audiences, focus group practitioners and the occasional moderator.
methodological literature on how to analyze focus group data (e.g., integrating the results of all content areas and reporting the whole results.
PDF Version. Instructional Webinar. This section describes another way to gather information about your market and opportunities to strengthen the economic health of your business district. It can be used with various stakeholders such as consumers, business owners and community leaders. A focus group is a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions of a defined area of interest i.
Conducting successful focus groups is harder than it looks.
Like Kurt, Helen had the knack of sleeping on planes. A chance meeting with the butler, who spoke good English, established a valuable friendship. Neither the landscape nor the present circumstanced justified the remark. But my dreams were as chaotic as the country we were in. Louis and we went to a baseball game in a rickshaw.
Your contribution can help change lives. Donate now. Sixteen training modules for teaching core skills. Learn more. A focus group is a small-group discussion guided by a trained leader.
You develop information by labeling each group of answers. You gain knowledge by asking how the information answers the research objectives. They are findings. You develop theory based on the evidence. You judge what it means.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Here are the most frequently asked questions and my answers. OK, given that caveat, here is an attempt to answer the most common questions.