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Difference Between Atmospheric Distillation And Vacuum Distillation Pdf

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Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Units

The key difference between atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation is that the atmospheric distillation is used to separate low boiling fraction of a mixture whereas vacuum distillation allows the components to be separated easily by lowering the boiling point of a high boiling fraction. Distillation is the action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling. There are different forms of distillation methods that are used for different applications; simple distillation, fractional distillation, atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, steam distillation, etc. Overview and Key Difference 2. What is Atmospheric Distillation 3. What is Vacuum Distillation 4. Atmospheric distillation is a technique used to separate components in crude oil that is performed under atmospheric pressure.

Register now or log in to join your professional community. The atmospheric distillation column is used to handle the straight crude oil and it operates at a pressure of roughly1 atm. The vacuum distillation column is used to handle the residue being heavy from the distillation column and that at a reduced pressure in order to decrease the boiling point of the species so that the recovery of heavier components can be done easier. Heavy products being evaporated easily. Atmospheric distillation column is used to separate the crude oil components into its fractions which are valuable products like gasoline, LPG, kerosene, Diesel fuel, naphtha and heavy gas oil.

The chapter considers the technology of the crude distillation unit in general. The crude distillation unit is at the front-end of the oil refinery. The desalting process and distillation of crude oil are included in the crude distillation unit CDU. The desalting process of crude oil is imperative to ensure the good quality of crude oil, that is, to remove impurities before its transfer to refining. This procedure minimizes or eliminates harmful substances such as sulfur, water, salts, and even mechanical impurities, which ensures a long operation of pipelines. However, the desalting process is only part of the distillation unit. The other phase of this unit is as already mentioned above is: distillation.

Atmospheric and Vacuum Crude Distillation Units in Petroleum Refineries

Vacuum distillation is distillation performed under reduced pressure, which allows the purification of compounds not readily distilled at ambient pressures or simply to save time or energy. This technique separates compounds based on differences in boiling points. This technique is used when the boiling point of the desired compound is difficult to achieve or will cause the compound to decompose. The reduction in boiling point can be calculated using a temperature-pressure nomograph using the Clausius—Clapeyron relation. For samples with high boiling points, short-path distillation apparatus is commonly employed.

Generally, Petroleum refineries are put in place to convert or refine unprocessed crude oil into more useful products using both physical separation and chemical conversion processes. Albeit, different refining unit are subsets of the physical separation category. The atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit seems to be more prominent. Conventionally, the crude atmospheric residue cannot be further heated in an atmospheric condition due to: coke formation, pipes plugging, thermal cracking and straining of the furnace. A vacuum distillation column is therefore required. An integrated distillation column with a capacity of 10, barrel per day was therefore designed for the concurrent production of all distillate cuts.

Vacuum distillation is a part of the refining process that helps to produce petroleum products out of the heavier oils left over from atmospheric distillation. In the refining process, the atmospheric distillation unit ADU separates the lighter hydrocarbons from the heavier oils based on boiling point. The ADU is capable of boiling crude oil fractions to temperatures of o F. Above this temperature, the oil will thermally crack, or break apart, which impedes the distillation process. As lighter products are boiled off, the heavier oils, called bottoms, remain at the bottom of the ADU.


The name of the distillation itself gives us the difference between them. Atmospheric distillation is carried out at atmospheric pressure conditions i.e., normal.


U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis

The crude oil is heated to - oC and the vapour and liquid are piped into the distilling column. The liquid falls to the bottom and the vapour rises, passing through a series of perforated trays sieve trays. It operates at atmospheric pressure which is mm of Hg. Above this temperature, the oil will thermally crack, or break apart, which impedes the distillation process. The purpose of atmospheric distillation is primary separation of various 'cuts' of hydrocarbons namely, fuel gases, LPG, naptha , kerosene, diesel and fuel oil.

5.4: Vacuum Distillation

For sake of simplicity, Figure 4. Crude oil enters a desalter and then a heater. It then undergoes an atmospheric distillation where it refluxes. The atmospheric residue goes to a separate heater and then into a vacuum distillation right where light vacuum gas oil and heavy vacuum gas oil are separated out along with vacuum residue. A temperature gradient is established in the column by removing heat from the overhead vapor.

The most common application of multi-steam ejectors is in the vacuum distillation column of an oil refinery. The vacuum in the distillation column is kept by a multi-stage steam ejector unit which includes:. Decanter Centrifuge Clarifying Decanter.


The Crude Distillation Unit is the first major unit in the refinery. Therefore, it is the first processing unit to be exposed to hot crude oil feedstock and provides.


Crude Distillation Unit (CDU)

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5 Comments

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Jacint G. 23.12.2020 at 19:57

The next step in the process of crude oil separation is the vacuum distillation of the atmospheric residue that was drawn off from the bottom of the atmospheric column.

Jeoffroi A. 24.12.2020 at 22:19

Distillation of crude oil is carried out in two units, first in an Atmospheric Distillation of the residue from atmospheric distillation in the Vacuum Distillation Unit (VDU), To minimize the pressure difference between the bottom and top of the.

Christi A. 25.12.2020 at 18:41

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