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The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. This article gives a brief overview of the central nervous system CNS.
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Preface to the First English EditionThe first German edition of this book, which was later lovingly known as "The Faller," published in At this time nobody could ever have imagined that "The Human Body," written by Swiss anatomist Adolf Faller, would remain uniquely successful for almost 40 years.
Thirteen German editions and several editions in other languages speak for themselves. Fifteen years after Faller's death, the thoroughly and extensively revised 13th German edition published. The current English edition is based upon this German edition. The new version contains almost more pages than the original.
In addition, more than 50 new illustrations have been added to facilitate an easier approach to sometimes difficult information. Where necessary, entire chapters have been rewritten to cover the latest developments in human biology and medicine.
All these changes have been made with the reader in mind. In fact, many of the changes were suggestions from the readers which we have happily incorporated.
These include a brief summary at the end of each chapter, a fold-out depicting the complete human skeleton, and a table of contents at the beginning of each chapter.
We therefore thank our readers for their many helpful suggestions and hope that readers of the English edition will follow suit. Many thanks go to our translator Oliver French MD, who not only skilfully translated the text but also adapted it to American medical practice. Due to his expertise this book is far more than a simple translation of a German textbook; it has really become an international textbook in its own right.
Preparing this English edition was a rewarding experience and we hope that the reader will share our enthusiam when studying the fascinating fabric of the human body. This work has been made particularly enjoyable by the help of the experienced Thieme staff. Mr IntroductionThe basic building block of the human body as well as of all animals and plants is the cell. It is the smallest independent living entity and can live independently as a single-celled unicellular organism e.
In multicellular organisms metazoa the cells organize in large units and become functional entities within an overarching framework.
In unicellular organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, all the cells exhibit an identical basic structure. Multicellular organisms, such as plants, animals, and humans, also exhibit a fundamentally uniform organization. Here, however, there are great differences in the variety of tasks, and each type of cell specializes in the execution of a specific task within the organism. For instance, red blood cells erythrocytes transport oxygen, while other cells serve as conduits for stimuli nerve cells or serve reproduction germ cells.
The actions of each individual cell in an organism depend on specific genetic information. In the cell this information is stored in certain sections of the substance termed deoxyribonucleic acid DNA in the genes. It consists of programs to direct cell reproduction as well as the synthesis of proteins. Both functions are essential to ensure that a fertilized ovum can develop into a multicellular organism and that cells differentiated in various ways, such as brain, lung, muscle, or liver cells, can develop from common precursor cells.
Since the number of cells is so great, each individual building block must be microscopically small. When cell processes are included, Besides these basic properties, certain cells possess specific properties. These may include mobility e. Structure of the Cell and Cell Organelles Basic StructureExamination of a cell by light microscopy shows a fluid cell body cytoplasm , a cell nucleus and the surrounding cell membrane plasmalemma Fig. The cytoplasm contains a number of highly organized small bodies, called cell organelles, that can often only be seen by electron microscopy.
It also contains certain supportive structures parts of the cytoskeleton and numerous cell inclusions e. Cell MembraneThe surrounding cell membrane plasmalemma contains the fluid cell body protoplasm. An electron-microscopic section demonstrates a three-layered structure Fig. The double lipid layer is infiltrated with proteins in a more or less mosaiclike fashion.
These protein molecules have multiple functions. They may form pores that serve the transmission of water and salts, or they may take part in regulatory functions as receptor proteins. The membrane proteins abutting on the outer side of the cell, and in part the watersoluble ends of the phospholipids, are covered with a thin film of sugar molecules carbohydrates. This film is called the glycocalyx. The chemi- Cytoplasm and Cell OrganellesThe cytoplasm surrounds the cell nucleus. It is composed of the hyaloplasm or cytosol intracellular fluid , the cell organelles that perform certain cellular functions, and various cell inclusions, the metaplasm metabolic products of the cell.
The intracellular fluid consists of an aqueous saline solution and proteins microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments that determine the shape and mechanical solidity of the cell the so-called cytoskeleton.
The organelles vary in number according to the type and function of the cell containing them. It subdivides the interior of the cell into compartments and facilitates the intracellular transport of substances along its channels. Its large surface makes possible the rapid completion of specific metabolic processes e.
In many places the endoplasmic reticulum is dotted with small granular structures, the ribosomes granular ER , that serve especially for the synthesis of proteins see below. Granular endoplasmic reticulum is especially prominent in cells such as those of the pancreas. The endoplasmic reticulum is called smooth ER when ribosomes are absent, predominating especially in hormone-secreting cells.
All cells except red blood cells contain endoplasmic reticulum. RibosomesRibosomes Fig. They are not surrounded by elementary membrane. In the granular ER they are responsible for the production of exported proteins e. These create the amino acid chains for protein synthesis.
Golgi ApparatusThe Golgi apparatus Fig. Lysosomes are also formed by this mechanism. The Golgi bodies have one side for uptake and one for discharge. Precursors of protein secretions migrate from the granular endoplasmic reticulum to the in-Structure of the Cell and Cell Organelles take side of the Golgi body, where they are loaded into transport vesicles and flushed out of the cell through the discharge side.
During this process, the membrane of the vesicle fuses with the cell membrane. Hence the renewal of the cell membrane is an important task of the Golgi apparatus. LysosomesThe more or less spherical lysosomes Fig. They contain large quantities of enzymes, especially acid hydrolases and phosphatases, with the aid of which they can degrade ingested foreign material or the cell's own decaying organelles and return them in the form of metabolites for cellular metabolism recycling.
The lysosome's membrane protects intact cells from uncontrolled activity of the lysosomal enzymes. In damaged cells, the liberated enzymes can contribute to tissue autolysis e. CentriolesCentrioles Fig.
Their walls are composed of microtubules, which are rigid, filamentous proteins. Centrioles play a major role in cell division, when they build threadlike spindle structures that are connected with the movement of the chromosomes. Evidently this process determines the polarity of the cell for the direction of a cell division.
MitochondriaMitochondria Fig. Their walls consist of an inner and an outer elementary membrane. The inner has multiple folds, and so possesses a large surface area. Mitochondria are the "power plants" of the cell, as they provide the energy necessary for all metabolic processes in the form of a universal biological fuel, adenosine triphosphate ATP. The manufacture of ATP from the three basic materialsproteins, fats, and carbohydrates-takes place almost exclusively in the mitochondria Fig.
ATP consists of three chemical substances linked to each other by high-energy bonds: a nitrogen-containing adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate molecules adenosine triphosphate.
When one phosphate molecule is split off, energy is liberated and ATP becomes ADP adenosine diphosphate , which, with added energy, can revert to adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria. From the mitochondria, ATP reaches the sites in the cell where energy is utilized. It is needed among other uses for the transport of materials through the cell membrane, for the synthesis of proteins and other cell components, and for muscle movement contraction. However, there are cells with two nuclei some liver cells or greater numbers of nuclei, e.
Physiology is the study of normal function within living creatures. It is a sub-section of biology, covering a range of topics that include organs, anatomy, cells, biological compounds, and how they all interact to make life possible. From ancient theories to molecular laboratory techniques, physiological research has shaped our understanding of the components of our body, how they communicate, and how they keep us alive. Here are some key points about physiology. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. The study of physiology is, in a sense, the study of life.
The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body.
Discover all there is to know about human anatomy in DK's latest concise visual guide to the human body. Fully upd. English Pages Year 9 July This award-winning science book uses the latest findings from neuroscience research and brain-imaging technology to take.
Bones are more than just the scaffolding that holds the body together. Bones come in all shapes and sizes and have many roles. In this article, we explain their function, what they are made of, and the types of cells involved. Bones have many functions. They support the body structurally, protect our vital organs, and allow us to move.
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Structure and function of the human body. Non-technical introduction to anatomy, physiology, exercise, fitness and nutrition. Laboratory experiments in human physiology; study of human anatomical materials. Does not satisfy requirements for ADN majors. Structure of the human body. Laboratory includes study of a human anatomical specimen and comparative anatomy. Transferable to all four-year institutions, including nursing schools.
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It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.