File Name: a textbook of translation concepts methods and practice .zip
Mahmoud Ordudari received his B. He received his MA in the same field from Isfahan University in His MA thesis was on translation of culture-specific concepts in Persian literature. He's been engaged in teaching general English in different language institutes. He is interested in studies related to translation of literary texts. Ordudari can be reached at: ordui yahoo. Al-Hasnawi, Ph. Language and Communication Haiducii Story by M. Translating culture-specific concepts CSCs in general and allusions in particular seem to be one of the most challenging tasks to be performed by a translator; in other words, allusions are potential problems of the translation process due to the fact that allusions have particular connotations and implications in the source language SL and the foreign culture FC but not necessarily in the TL and the domestic culture.
There are some procedures and strategies for rendering CSCs and allusions respectively. The present paper aims at scrutinizing whether there exists any point of similarity between these procedures and strategies and to identify which of these procedures and strategies seem to be more effective than the others. If language were just a classification for a set of general or universal concepts, it would be easy to translate from an SL to a TL; furthermore, under the circumstances the process of learning an L2 would be much easier than it actually is.
In this regard, Culler believes that languages are not nomenclatures and the concepts of one language may differ radically from those of another, since each language articulates or organizes the world differently, and languages do not simply name categories; they articulate their own p.
The conclusion likely to be drawn from what Culler writes is that one of the troublesome problems of translation is the disparity among languages. The bigger the gap between the SL and the TL, the more difficult the transfer of message from the former to the latter will be.
The difference between an SL and a TL and the variation in their cultures make the process of translating a real challenge. Among the problematic factors involved in translation such as form, meaning, style, proverbs, idioms, etc. Krings defines translation strategy as "translator's potentially conscious plans for solving concrete translation problems in the framework of a concrete translation task," and Seguinot believes that there are at least three global strategies employed by the translators: i translating without interruption for as long as possible; ii correcting surface errors immediately; iii leaving the monitoring for qualitative or stylistic errors in the text to the revision stage.
Moreover, Loescher defines translation strategy as "a potentially conscious procedure for solving a problem faced in translating a text, or any segment of it. In this regard, Cohen asserts that "the element of consciousness is what distinguishes strategies from these processes that are not strategic.
Furthermore, Bell differentiates between global those dealing with whole texts and local those dealing with text segments strategies and confirms that this distinction results from various kinds of translation problems.
Venuti indicates that translation strategies "involve the basic tasks of choosing the foreign text to be translated and developing a method to translate it. Taking into account the process and product of translation, Jaaskelainen divides strategies into two major categories: some strategies relate to what happens to texts, while other strategies relate to what happens in the process. Product-related strategies, as Jaaskelainen writes, involves the basic tasks of choosing the SL text and developing a method to translate it.
However, she maintains that process-related strategies "are a set of loosely formulated rules or principles which a translator uses to reach the goals determined by the translating situation" p. Moreover, Jaaskelainen divides this into two types, namely global strategies and local strategies: "global strategies refer to general principles and modes of action and local strategies refer to specific activities in relation to the translator's problem-solving and decision-making.
Newmark b mentions the difference between translation methods and translation procedures. He writes that, "[w]hile translation methods relate to whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of language" p.
He goes on to refer to the following methods of translation:. Newmark writes of a continuum existing between "semantic" and "communicative" translation. In order to clarify the distinction between procedure and strategy, the forthcoming section is allotted to discussing the procedures of translating culture-specific terms, and strategies for rendering allusions will be explained in detail.
Defining culture-bound terms CBTs as the terms which "refer to concepts, institutions and personnel which are specific to the SL culture" p.
Notes can appear in the form of 'footnotes. Nida advocates the use of footnotes to fulfill at least the two following functions: i to provide supplementary information, and ii to call attention to the original's discrepancies.
A really troublesome area in the field of translation appears to be the occurrence of allusions, which seem to be culture-specific portions of a SL. All kinds of allusions, especially cultural and historical allusions, bestow a specific density on the original language and need to be explicated in the translation to bring forth the richness of the SL text for the TL audience.
Appearing abundantly in literary translations, allusions, as Albakry points out, "are part of the prior cultural knowledge taken for granted by the author writing for a predominantly Moslem Arab [SL] audience. To give the closest approximation of the source language, therefore, it was necessary to opt for 'glossing' or using explanatory footnotes.
Proper names, which are defined by Richards as "names of a particular person, place or thing" and are spelled "with a capital letter," play an essential role in a literary work. For instance let us consider personal PNs. They may refer to the setting, social status and nationality of characters, and really demand attention when rendered into a foreign language. There are some models for rendering PNs in translations. One of these models is presented by Hervey and Higgins who believe that there exist two strategies for translating PNs.
Hervey and Higgins refer to the former as exotism which "is tantamount to literal translation, and involves no cultural transposition" p. However, they propose another procedure or alternative, as they put it, namely cultural transplantation.
Regarding the translation of PNs, Newmark a asserts that, "normally, people's first and sure names are transferred, thus preserving nationality and assuming that their names have no connotations in the text. The procedure of transference cannot be asserted to be effective where connotations and implied meanings are significant. Indeed, there are some names in the Persian poet Sa'di's work Gulestan, which bear connotations and require a specific strategy for being translated.
Newmark's a solution of the mentioned problem is as follows: "first translate the word that underlies the SL proper name into the TL, and then naturalize the translated word back into a new SL proper name. As it seems it is only useful for personal PNs, since as Newmark a , ignoring the right of not educated readers to enjoy a translated text, states, it can be utilized merely "when the character's name is not yet current amongst an educated TL readership.
Leppihalme proposes another set of strategies for translating the proper name allusions:. Moreover, nine strategies for the translation of key-phrase allusions are proposed by Leppihalme 82 as follows:. Although some stylists consider translation "sprinkled with footnotes" undesirable, their uses can assist the TT readers to make better judgment of the ST contents.
In general, it seems that the procedures 'functional equivalent' and 'notes' would have a higher potential for conveying the concepts underlying the CSCs embedded in a text; moreover, it can be claimed that a combination of these strategies would result in a more accurate understanding of the CSCs than other procedures. Various strategies opted for by translators in rendering allusions seem to play a crucial role in recognition and perception of connotations carried by them.
If a novice translator renders a literary text without paying adequate attention to the allusions, the connotations are likely not to be transferred as a result of the translator's failure to acknowledge them. They will be entirely lost to the majority of the TL readers; consequently, the translation will be ineffective.
It seems necessary for an acceptable translation to produce the same or at least similar effects on the TT readers as those created by the original work on its readers. This paper may show that a translator does not appear to be successful in his challenging task of efficiently rendering the CSCs and PNs when he sacrifices, or at least minimizes, the effect of allusions in favor of preserving graphical or lexical forms of source language PNs.
In other words, a competent translator is wll-advised not to deprive the TL reader of enjoying, or even recognizing, the allusions either in the name of fidelity or brevity. It can be claimed that the best translation method seem to be the one which allows translator to utilize 'notes.
Albakry, M. Linguistic and cultural issues in literary translation. Bell, R. Baker Ed , Routledge e ncyclopedia of translation studies. Cohen, A. On taking tests: what the students report. Language testing, 11 1.
Culler, J. Structuralist poetics: structuralism, linguistics, and the study of literature. Cornell: Cornell University Press. Graedler, A. Cultural shock. Harvey, M. A beginner's course in legal translation: the case of culture-bound terms. Hervey, S. Thinking Translation. Jaaskelainen, R. Translation studies: what are they? Tapping the process: an explorative study of cognitive and effective factors involved in translating.
Joensuu: University of Joensuu Publications in Humanities. Krings, H. Translation problems and translation strategies of advanced German learners of French. Blum-Kulka Eds.
Tubingen: Gunter Narr. Leppihalme, R. Culture bumps: an empirical approach to the translation of allusions. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Loescher, W. Translation performance, translation process and translation strategies. Tuebingen: Guten Narr. Newmark, P. About Translation: Multilingual Matters. Nida, E. Towards a science of translation, with special reference to principles and procedures involved in Bible translating. Leiden: Brill. Venuti, L. Strategies of translation. Baker Ed.
Mahmoud Ordudari received his B. He received his MA in the same field from Isfahan University in His MA thesis was on translation of culture-specific concepts in Persian literature. He's been engaged in teaching general English in different language institutes. He is interested in studies related to translation of literary texts. Ordudari can be reached at: ordui yahoo.
We have also added new Featured Authors and included more links to lectures. Subtitling: Concepts and Practices second edition coming in December ! The Resources with newly added titles including Translation Resources tab offers students a wide range of learning materials, from fully interactive companion websites to glossaries of key terms, extensive further reading lists and downloadable podcasts. Simply View by book to browse the selection. Additionally, visit our Featured Authors section for specially recorded videos which show some of our leading authors introducing and summarising aspects of translation studies as a discipline. We recommend browsing a virtual collection of the most popular online research published in Routledge translation journals, and visiting our Journals section for the latest information about our key titles.
PDF | Translation: Theory, Methodology and Practice is a new coursebook based A Textbook of Translation: Concepts, Methods and Practice.
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SEDL's NCDDR project is a knowledge translation project focused on expanding awareness, use, and contributions to evidence bases of disability and rehabilitation research. This NCDDR publication is designed to provide knowledge translation overview information targeted to stakeholders in disability and rehabilitation research. Neither SEDL nor the NCDDR discriminates on the basis of age, sex, race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, marital or veteran status, or the presence of a disability. The contents of this document do not necessarily represent the policy of the U. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Suggested citation: Sudsawad, P. Knowledge translation: Introduction to models, strategies, and measures.
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