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Mobile security , or more specifically mobile device security , is the protection of smartphones, tablets, and laptops from threats associated with wireless computing. Of particular concern is the security of personal and business information now stored on smartphones. More and more users and businesses use smartphones to communicate, but also to plan and organize their users' work and also private life.

Anyone who has ever shopped for a new smart phone, laptop, or other tech gadget knows that staying connected is crucial. There is a lot of discussion over which service provider offers the best coverage—enabling devices to work anywhere and at any time—with 4G and LTE becoming a pervasive part of our everyday language. From satellite signals to cloud technologies, this handbook focuses on the ways communication is being revolutionized, providing a crucial reference source for consumers, researchers, and business professionals who want to be on the frontline of the next big development in wireless technologies.

Smart Phone and Next Generation Mobile Computing

Mobile security , or more specifically mobile device security , is the protection of smartphones, tablets, and laptops from threats associated with wireless computing. Of particular concern is the security of personal and business information now stored on smartphones. More and more users and businesses use smartphones to communicate, but also to plan and organize their users' work and also private life. Within companies, these technologies are causing profound changes in the organization of information systems and therefore they have become the source of new risks.

Indeed, smartphones collect and compile an increasing amount of sensitive information to which access must be controlled to protect the privacy of the user and the intellectual property of the company. All smartphones, as computers, are preferred targets of attacks. This is because these devices have family photos, pictures of pets, passwords, and more.

For attackers, these items are a digital passport to access everything they would need to know about a person. This is why attacks on mobile devices are on the rise.

There are also exploits that target software vulnerabilities in the browser or operating system while some malicious software relies on the weak knowledge of an average user. Security countermeasures are being developed and applied to smartphones, from security in different layers of software to the dissemination of information to end users. There are good practices to be observed at all levels, from design to use, through the development of operating systems , software layers, and downloadable apps.

A smartphone user is exposed to various threats when they use their phone. So applications must guarantee privacy and integrity of the information they handle. In addition, since some apps could themselves be malware , their functionality and activities should be limited for example, restricting the apps from accessing location information via GPS , blocking access to the user's address book, preventing the transmission of data on the network , sending SMS messages that are billed to the user, etc.

There are three prime targets for attackers: [4]. There are a number of threats to mobile devices, including annoyance, stealing money, invading privacy, propagation, and malicious tools.

The source of these attacks are the same actors found in the non-mobile computing space: [4]. Some mobile phone models have problems in managing binary SMS messages. It is possible, by sending an ill-formed block, to cause the phone to restart, leading to the denial of service attacks. If a user with a Siemens S55 received a text message containing a Chinese character, it would lead to a denial of service. This attack is called "curse of silence". A study on the safety of the SMS infrastructure revealed that SMS messages sent from the Internet can be used to perform a distributed denial of service DDoS attack against the mobile telecommunications infrastructure of a big city.

The attack exploits the delays in the delivery of messages to overload the network. Another potential attack could begin with a phone that sends an MMS to other phones, with an attachment. This attachment is infected with a virus. Upon receipt of the MMS, the user can choose to open the attachment. If it is opened, the phone is infected, and the virus sends an MMS with an infected attachment to all the contacts in the address book.

There is a real-world example of this attack: the virus Commwarrior [14] uses the address book and sends MMS messages including an infected file to recipients. A user installs the software, as received via MMS message. Then, the virus began to send messages to recipients taken from the address book.

The attacker may try to break the encryption of the mobile network. The GSM network encryption algorithms belong to the family of algorithms called A5. Due to the policy of security through obscurity it has not been possible to openly test the robustness of these algorithms. In addition, tracing of mobile terminals is difficult since each time the mobile terminal is accessing or being accessed by the network, a new temporary identity TMSI is allocated to the mobile terminal.

The TMSI is used as the identity of the mobile terminal the next time it accesses the network. The TMSI is sent to the mobile terminal in encrypted messages. Once the encryption algorithm of GSM is broken, the attacker can intercept all unencrypted communications made by the victim's smartphone.

An attacker can try to eavesdrop on Wi-Fi communications to derive information e. This type of attack is not unique to smartphones, but they are very vulnerable to these attacks because very often the Wi-Fi is the only means of communication they have to access the internet.

The security of wireless networks WLAN is thus an important subject. Initially, wireless networks were secured by WEP keys. The weakness of WEP is a short encryption key which is the same for all connected clients. In addition, several reductions in the search space of the keys have been found by researchers.

Now, most wireless networks are protected by the WPA security protocol. The major improvements in security are the dynamic encryption keys. For small networks, the WPA is a " pre-shared key " which is based on a shared key. Encryption can be vulnerable if the length of the shared key is short.

With limited opportunities for input i. This increases the likelihood that an attacker succeeds with a brute-force attack. As with GSM, if the attacker succeeds in breaking the identification key, it will be possible to attack not only the phone but also the entire network it is connected to. Many smartphones for wireless LANs remember they are already connected, and this mechanism prevents the user from having to re-identify with each connection.

However, an attacker could create a WIFI access point twin with the same parameters and characteristics as the real network. Using the fact that some smartphones remember the networks, they could confuse the two networks and connect to the network of the attacker who can intercept data if it does not transmit its data in encrypted form.

Lasco is a worm that initially infects a remote device using the SIS file format. The smartphone thus believes the file to come from a trusted source and downloads it, infecting the machine. Security issues related to Bluetooth on mobile devices have been studied and have shown numerous problems on different phones.

One easy to exploit vulnerability : unregistered services do not require authentication, and vulnerable applications have a virtual serial port used to control the phone. An attacker only needed to connect to the port to take full control of the device.

The attacker sends a file via Bluetooth. If the recipient accepts, a virus is transmitted. For example: Cabir is a worm that spreads via Bluetooth connection. The user must accept the incoming file and install the program.

After installing, the worm infects the machine. The mobile web browser is an emerging attack vector for mobile devices.

Just as common Web browsers, mobile web browsers are extended from pure web navigation with widgets and plug-ins, or are completely native mobile browsers. Jailbreaking the iPhone with firmware 1. In this case, there was a vulnerability based on a stack-based buffer overflow in a library used by the web browser Libtiff.

A vulnerability in the web browser for Android was discovered in October A significant difference with the iPhone vulnerability was Android's sandboxing architecture which limited the effects of this vulnerability to the Web browser process.

Smartphones are also victims of classic piracy related to the web: phishing , malicious websites, software that run in the background, etc. The big difference is that smartphones do not yet have strong antivirus software available. Sometimes it is possible to overcome the security safeguards by modifying the operating system itself.

As real-world examples, this section covers the manipulation of firmware and malicious signature certificates.

These attacks are difficult. In , vulnerabilities in virtual machines running on certain devices were revealed. It was possible to bypass the bytecode verifier and access the native underlying operating system. In it was possible to manipulate the Nokia firmware before it is installed, and in fact in some downloadable versions of it, this file was human readable, so it was possible to modify and change the image of the firmware.

In theory smartphones have an advantage over hard drives since the OS files are in ROM , and cannot be changed by malware. However, in some systems it was possible to circumvent this: in the Symbian OS it was possible to overwrite a file with a file of the same name. When an application is installed, the signing of this application is verified by a series of certificates. One can create a valid signature without using a valid certificate and add it to the list. With firmware changes explained above it is very easy to insert a seemingly valid but malicious certificate.

Juice Jacking is a physical or hardware vulnerability specific to mobile platforms. Utilizing the dual purpose of the USB charge port, many devices have been susceptible to having data exfiltrated from, or malware installed onto a mobile device by utilizing malicious charging kiosks set up in public places or hidden in normal charge adapters.

Jail-breaking is also a physical access vulnerability, in which mobile device users initiate to hack into the devices to unlock it, and exploit weaknesses in the operating system. Mobile device users take control of their own device by jail-breaking it, and customize the interface by installing applications, change system settings that are not allowed on the devices.

Thus, allowing to tweak the mobile devices operating systems processes, run programs in the background, thus devices are being expose to variety of malicious attack that can lead to compromise important private data.

In , researcher from the University of Pennsylvania investigated the possibility of cracking a device's password through a smudge attack literally imaging the finger smudges on the screen to discern the user's password.

As smartphones are a permanent point of access to the internet mostly on , they can be compromised as easily as computers with malware. A malware is a computer program that aims to harm the system in which it resides.

A Trojan is a program that is on the smartphone and allows external users to connect discreetly. A worm is a program that reproduces on multiple computers across a network. A virus is malicious software designed to spread to other computers by inserting itself into legitimate programs and running programs in parallel. However, it must be said that the malware are far less numerous and important to smartphones as they are to computers.

Nonetheless, recent studies show that the evolution of malware in smartphones have rocketed in the last few years posing a threat to analysis and detection.

Typically an attack on a smartphone made by malware takes place in 3 phases: the infection of a host, the accomplishment of its goal, and the spread of the malware to other systems. Malware often uses the resources offered by the infected smartphones. It will use the output devices such as Bluetooth or infrared, but it may also use the address book or email address of the person to infect the user's acquaintances.

next generation mobile computing

Keeping up with mobile computing can be challenging since technology is moving so rapidly. In this work, we propose an error-correcting-code inspired strategy to execute Smart Phone and Next-Generation Mobile Computing shows you how the field has evolved, its real and potential current capabilities, and the issues affecting its future direction. Sign in to view your account details and order history. It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. These advancements can be seen in virtually every place that people go.

Emerging technologies offers historical perspectives on mobile computing, as well as new frameworks and methodologies for mobile networks, intelligent mobile applications, and mobile computing applications. It provides a glimpse into the near future of mobile computing by focusing on proximate software challenges coupled with promising techniques, infrastructure, and. Along with mobile phones, americans own a range of other information devices. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. And, as intel pointed out, the display is the main source of battery consumption.

Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Improving Smartphones Battery Life by Reducing Energy Waste of Background Applications Abstract: Smartphones have undergone a remarkable evolution over the last few years, from simple calling devices to full fledged computing devices where multiple services and applications run concurrently. Unfortunately, battery capacity increases at much slower pace, resulting as a main bottleneck for Internet connected smartphones. Several software-based techniques have been proposed in the literature for improving the battery life. Most common techniques include data compression, packet aggregation or batch scheduling, offloading partial computations to cloud, switching OFF interfaces e.

Smart Phone and Next Generation Mobile Computing

Written by researchers active in both academic and industry settings, it offers both a big-picture introduction to the topic and detailed insights into the technical details underlying all of the key trends. Smart Phone and Next-Generation Mobile Computing shows you how the field has evolved, its real and potential current capabilities, and the issues affecting its future direction. Lionel M. His research interests include parallel architectures, distributed systems, high-speed networks, and pervasive computing.

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Smart Phone and Next Generation Mobile Computing