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Kidney Structure And Function Pdf

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Regulation of extracellular fluid volume. The kidneys work to ensure an adequate quantity of plasma to keep blood flowing to vital organs. Regulation of osmolarity.

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that are found high in the back of the abdominal cavity, just below the rib cage; one on either side of the spine. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left because of the position of the liver.

What do the kidneys do?

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped structures that are located just below and posterior to the liver in the peritoneal cavity. Adrenal glands, also called suprarenal glands, sit on top of each kidney. All the blood in the human body is filtered many times a day by the kidneys. These organs use almost 25 percent of the oxygen absorbed through the lungs to perform this function. Oxygen allows the kidney cells to efficiently manufacture chemical energy in the form of ATP through aerobic respiration.

Kidneys eliminate wastes from the body; urine is the filtrate that exits the kidneys. Externally, the kidneys are surrounded by three layers. The outermost layer, the renal fascia, is a tough connective tissue layer.

The second layer, the perirenal fat capsule, helps anchor the kidneys in place. The third and innermost layer is the renal capsule. Internally, the kidney has three regions: an outer cortex, a medulla in the middle, and the renal pelvis in the region called the hilum of the kidney. The hilum is the concave part of the bean-shape where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the kidney; it is also the point of exit for the ureters.

Because the kidney filters blood, its network of blood vessels is an important component of its structure and function. The arteries, veins, and nerves that supply the kidney enter and exit at the renal hilum. Renal blood supply starts with the branching of the aorta into the renal arteries which are each named based on the region of the kidney they pass through and ends with the exiting of the renal veins to join the inferior vena cava.

The renal arteries split into several segmental arteries upon entering the kidneys. Each segmental artery splits further into several interlobar arteries that enter the renal columns, which supply the renal lobes. The interlobar arteries split at the junction of the renal cortex and medulla to form the arcuate arteries. Cortical radiate arteries, as the name suggests, radiate out from the arcuate arteries, branch into numerous afferent arterioles, and then enter the capillaries supplying the nephrons.

Learning Objectives Explain how the kidneys serve as the main osmoregulatory organs in mammalian systems, using the functional properties of nephrons. Kidneys filter the blood; urine is the filtrate that eliminates waste from the body via the ureter into the bladder. The kidneys are surrounded by three layers: renal fascia, perirenal fat capsule, and the renal capsule.

Key Terms renal : pertaining to the kidneys. Kidneys: The Main Osmoregulatory Organ The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped structures that are located just below and posterior to the liver in the peritoneal cavity. They are located in the peritoneal cavity. Internally, the kidney is most importantly filled with nephrons that filter blood and generate urine.

41.4A: Kidney Structure

The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. Each kidney is attached to a ureter , a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each adult human kidney contains around 1 million nephrons, while a mouse kidney contains only about 12, nephrons. The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluids , fluid osmolality , acid-base balance , various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins. Filtration occurs in the glomerulus : one-fifth of the blood volume that enters the kidneys is filtered. Examples of substances reabsorbed are solute-free water , sodium , bicarbonate , glucose , and amino acids.

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart. Nephrons are the most important part of each kidney. They take in blood, metabolize nutrients, and help pass out waste products from filtered blood.

Figure 1. Kidneys filter the blood, producing urine that is stored in the bladder prior to elimination through the urethra. The kidneys , illustrated in Figure 1, are a pair of bean-shaped structures that are located just below and posterior to the liver in the peritoneal cavity. The adrenal glands sit on top of each kidney and are also called the suprarenal glands. Kidneys filter blood and purify it. All the blood in the human body is filtered many times a day by the kidneys; these organs use up almost 25 percent of the oxygen absorbed through the lungs to perform this function. Oxygen allows the kidney cells to efficiently manufacture chemical energy in the form of ATP through aerobic respiration.

Kidney Overview

Nephron , functional unit of the kidney , the structure that actually produces urine in the process of removing waste and excess substances from the blood. There are about 1,, nephrons in each human kidney. The most primitive nephrons are found in the kidneys pronephros of primitive fish, amphibian larvae, and embryos of more advanced vertebrates. The nephrons found in the kidneys mesonephros of amphibians and most fish, and in the late embryonic development of more advanced vertebrates, are only slightly more advanced in structure.

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped structures that are located just below and posterior to the liver in the peritoneal cavity. Adrenal glands, also called suprarenal glands, sit on top of each kidney. All the blood in the human body is filtered many times a day by the kidneys. These organs use almost 25 percent of the oxygen absorbed through the lungs to perform this function. Oxygen allows the kidney cells to efficiently manufacture chemical energy in the form of ATP through aerobic respiration.

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs present in all vertebrates. They remove waste products from the body, maintain balanced electrolyte levels, and regulate blood pressure. The kidneys are some of the most important organs.

Anatomy and Function of the Urinary System

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25.1 Internal and External Anatomy of the Kidney

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