File Name: interstellar beyond time and space .zip
Handbook of Exoplanets pp Cite as. Experience in exploring our own solar system has shown that direct investigation of planetary bodies using space probes invariably yields scientific knowledge not otherwise obtainable. In the case of exoplanets, such direct investigation may be required to confirm inferences made by astronomical observations, especially with regard to planetary interiors, surface processes, geological evolution, and possible biology.
Access options available:. Reviewed by: Interstellar dir. In Interstellar , the final frontier is not outer space but the fifth dimension, which exists beyond the three dimensions of space and the time dimension of relativity.
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Thorne talks about what he learned from the film's unprecedented visualizations of black holes and wormholes, what it and his accompanying book can teach, and the likelihood of humans escaping the Solar System. How did Interstellar come about?
I have long worked on black holes and, since the s, wormholes — hypothetical tunnels in space that link distant regions of the Universe. About eight years ago, I and my friend Lynda Obst, a film producer, came up with a movie set on the 'warped side of the Universe' — black holes, wormholes, higher dimensions and beyond.
It interested director Steven Spielberg, who brought in Jonathan 'Jonah' Nolan to write the screenplay. Steven dropped out and later Jonah's brother Christopher Nolan took over as director and final screenwriter. Chris and Jonah changed our story almost completely, but preserved the warped space-time and splendidly fulfilled our vision of a science-fiction movie with real science woven deeply in its fabric. In it, nothing violates well-established physical laws and all the wild speculations spring from science, not just the fertile mind of a screenwriter.
I met with Jonah and Chris every few weeks as they crafted the screenplay, brainstorming about the science. Black holes do not emit light, so you visualize them through gravitational lensing — how they bend light from other objects. I took equations based on Einstein's general theory of relativity and created a description of a wormhole with three parameters: diameter, interior length and the degree of flare where the wormhole joins the external Universe.
Paul's team used my equations to compute what a camera would see through the wormhole; Chris, perusing the images, chose the parameter values for Interstellar 's wormhole.
With computing power beyond what is normally used by physicists, and software designed to give rapidly changing images at IMAX resolution, we were able to see something never seen before.
We simulated a fast-spinning black hole and a field of stars, and what we discovered is an amazingly complex, fingerprint-like pattern of starlight near the edge of the black hole's shadow, which comes from this gravitational lensing.
There are regions where the stars look as if they are still, right next to others where the stars are swirling around. When we first saw hints of this, I thought we had done something wrong. We now think it is caused by a complex set of caustics wrinkles in the camera's 'past light cone' — not unlike the patterns on the bottom of a sunlit swimming pool.
These wrap around the sky many times because the black hole's spin makes space whirl. No, there was a full embrace of this melding of arts with science that extended to all four lead actors. Matthew McConaughey and Anne Hathaway came to me for in-depth discussions — they were trying to wrap their heads around the science. Michael Caine asked to have his photograph taken with me, and my jaw dropped.
He told me his character was based on me and he wanted to talk about how a theoretical physicist thinks. Jessica Chastain asked for help with quantum equations. The nicest thing was working with artists who are brilliant, intellectually curious and from a background so different from my own. The nearest potentially habitable planet outside the Solar System is perhaps just under 12 light years 3.
If you think of that distance as like going from New York to Perth, Australia, then the distance from Earth to the Moon would be about 7 centimetres. That gives you some sense of the challenge involved.
I think humans will make that journey, but not in this century or the next, or maybe the one after that. It is too hard. For a science-fiction story, a wormhole created by an advanced civilization is the only way to do it in the next century, but it is unlikely that wormholes exist.
You have to prop them open with 'negative energy' and it is unlikely that the laws of physics allow you to collect enough negative energy. But there is no proof that they can't exist. My passion is to understand the non-linear dynamics of warped space-time, and the ideal venue for this is black-hole collisions.
There is a high probability that in the next several years we will detect gravitational waves — ripples in the fabric of space-time — generated by such collisions.
A combination of computer simulations and gravitational-wave observations will really open our eyes about the behaviour of warped space and warped time when they are wildly dynamical.
And who knows, maybe the next movie will involve colliding black holes. We will have to see! A brief history of time warps. Black-hole mergers cast kaleidoscope of shadows. Reprints and Permissions. Merali, Z. Nature , — Download citation. Published : 12 November Issue Date : 13 November Nature By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.
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Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Download PDF. Subjects Arts Astronomy and astrophysics Physics. Directed by Christopher Nolan. Warner Brothers: Credit: Warner Bros. How hands-on were you during development? Credit: Illustration by Jim Spencer. Norton: Did you learn anything new? Was there any culture clash?
Will interstellar travel ever be possible? What areas of physics currently excite you? Authors Zeeya Merali View author publications. Additional information Interview by Zeeya Merali. Related links Related links Related links in Nature Research A brief history of time warps Black-hole mergers cast kaleidoscope of shadows Related external links Kip Thorne Interstellar.
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Interstellar is a epic science fiction film directed and produced by Christopher Nolan. Set in a dystopian future where humanity is struggling to survive, the film follows a group of astronauts who travel through a wormhole near Saturn in search of a new home for mankind. Brothers Christopher and Jonathan Nolan wrote the screenplay, which had its origins in a script Jonathan developed in Caltech theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics  Kip Thorne was an executive producer, acted as scientific consultant, and wrote a tie-in book, The Science of Interstellar. Paramount Pictures , Warner Bros. Pictures , and Skydance Productions co-financed the film. Interstellar uses extensive practical and miniature effects and the company Double Negative created additional digital effects.
Interstellar: Beyond Time and Space documents the making of Nolan's latest masterpiece in fascinating detail and features interviews with the acclaimed director.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The journey to interstellar space began 50 years ago with a discovery and a prediction.
Wall St. Bell not only shines as a leading planetary scientist, you get the sneaky feeling he knew the probe personally, serving in this case as Voyager's personal biographer The Voyager spacecraft are our farthest-flung emissaries—
It sounds almost like science fiction: a tiny world that formed around another star, visiting our cosmic neighborhood for us to study. It will only happen more often this decade. The first known interstellar object — meaning it formed outside of our solar system — dropped by in late It was a skyscraper-size, tumbling little world, fairly elongated and smaller than most asteroids or comets that we regularly observe.
Astronomers like myself are professionally engaged in thinking about huge expanses of space and time. We view our home planet in a cosmic context.
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