File Name: economic and social issues .zip
Category: Economics. This research is on the study of the variables which have bearing on behavioural aspects of food wastage in Qatar.
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This article contributes to the assessment of public policies to control the incidence of COVID in several ways. Bergson-type welfare functions are utilized in the second model. It also critically examines the proposition that the isolation lockdown of social groups is a desirable method of limiting the incidence of COVID This leads onto the consideration of the extent to which personal freedom of choice liberty ought to be restricted in response to the COVID pandemic.
A brief outline follows illustrating the factors that are likely to hinder economic recovery from COVID Particular attention is paid to the moral and ethical questions raised by policies to control COVID These appear to have received little attention in the relevant economic literature.
The presence of highly infectious diseases which have become pandemics, such as COVID, create serious health and economic problems because of various global social and environmental transformations which have occurred as a result of economic development. The density of human populations is greater than ever.
In addition, the mobility of humans in all geographical dimensions has increased tremendously. These factors facilitate the outbreak of new infectious diseases and their spread. This is especially evident in the case of the corona viruses, such as different strains of influenza and more recently, COVID The incidence of COVID basically involves an environmental health issue because its occurrence depends on the state of the surrounds of individuals.
Developments in the nature of economic activity exacerbate the problem of controlling new infectious diseases which are transmitted as a result of human contact and presence. Increased economic specialization and greater division of labour accompanied by the expansion of markets and growing economic globalization increase the risk that individuals will come into contact with sources that facilitate the occurrence of highly contagious diseases such as influenza and COVID The adverse economic consequences of new forms or types of these diseases can be severe given the high degree of interdependence in economic activity in modern economies.
For example, the absence of workers from work due to such infections, or the risks of these infections, can disrupt production at the workplace level. As well, supply chains are liable to be broken or disrupted by these pandemics, and in addition, they usually have negative effects on the aggregate demand for commodities.
This is evident from the COVID outbreak which has resulted in a major worldwide economic depression. There is now a very large volume of literature on the economics of COVID and it is growing at a rapid rate. A relatively comprehensive review of this literature as at June is available in Brodeur et al. So this literature will not be reviewed here again.
It is important to assess the COVID pandemic in relation to the historical context, impact and nature of previous pandemics. Therefore, initially, this article provides a selected brief overview of the history and nature of a variety of pandemics and compares these to the COVID pandemic. Subsequently, choice problems involving available hospital capacity and the prioritization of admissions of those with COVID are considered.
Then attention turns to considering social choice and economic trade-offs between the incidence of COVID infections and the level of economic activity. This is followed up by a critical discussion of the desirability of isolating social groups in order to control the incidence of COVID and possibly reduce economic losses from the pandemic.
Particular attention is paid to the views of Acemoglu et al. The important issue of the extent to which individuals should be permitted freedom in relation to the control of COVID is investigated and brief notes follow on the factors that are likely to hinder economic recovery from COVID The occurrence of pandemics is by no means new. Urbanization facilitated by the Agricultural Revolution provided a fertile environment for pandemics to take hold. Further relevant information on pandemics is available in Wikipedia Anon, and this article is also well referenced.
Avian flu, Ebola and Zika. The Black Death also known as the bubonic plague ravaged Eurasia in the second half of the 14th century. This disease was spread from oriental rats which were infected by fleas which hosted the bacteria, Yersinia pestis to humans bubonic plague and it was also transmitted from human to human by droplets from those infected pneumonia plague. The death rates were especially high in urban areas.
Scheidel , Ch. Frankopan , pp. Several scholars have argued that changes wrought by the Black Death subsequently brought about positive long-term social and economic development see, for example, the references provided by Frankopan , Ch. The economic suffering caused by it appears to have been much worse.
Furthermore, it resulted in a considerably higher death rate than COVID and unlike COVID, the mortality rate from it bore little relationship to the age of victims, their socio-economic status, or their healthiness prior to contracting the disease.
In some areas, quarantine of visitors from outside of regions was adopted as a measure to reduce its incidence. For instance, the city of Dubrovnik quarantined visitors on a nearby island for a number of days. This is considered to be the first truly global pandemic and the method of transmission of the disease was similar to that for COVID In the absence of a vaccine, similar methods to those used to limit the occurrence of COVID were adopted such as quarantining those with the disease or those coming from infected areas.
Universities and schools were closed in some countries Hobbins, and economic production was well below attainable levels during the pandemic. It was thought that this was so because they may have been exposed to a similar virus earlier in their lives. It has been estimated that around million people contracted the disease, and that as many as 50 million died as a result of it. It began in August and petered out in Nevertheless, in the case of children in the womb of mothers who contracted this disease, they appear to have suffered long-term adverse affects.
A study by Almond published in the Journal of Political Economy reported that these children compared to other cohorts experienced life-long disadvantages. They had lower incomes and socio-economic status, and also were much more dependent on transfer payments than comparable cohorts.
This pandemic began in the early s and it now infects about 40 million people worldwide. While around two million died annually from this disease in , this number has now declined to about one million Wang et al.
Although it is a major economic and social burden on some sub-Saharan African countries, globally it is much less so. Overall, its annual adverse economic effects are much lower than are those being currently experienced with COVID It was, however, quickly contained and was limited mostly to China. It was virtually stamped out by mid Similar measures were adopted to contain it. Although it did have some negative global economic effects mainly on international travel and tourism , these were relatively minor compared to the economic consequences of COVID It spread rapidly.
The worldwide death rate from it is uncertain but seems to have been lower than in the case of COVID By comparison, COVID disproportionately is a threat to the elderly, especially those in old-age care facilities. In February , the avian influenza virus was found in poultry in Vietnam and began to infect workers in the poultry industry.
Cases were subsequently reported from several other countries. It was feared that it could become a pandemic. However, human to human transmission was low or possibly did not actually occur and the death rate was very low. Consequently, Avian flu soon became of little concern. The Ebola virus is another virus which has the potential to become a global pandemic.
So far it has been mostly limited to Africa where an outbreak first appeared in Guinea at the end of It is very deadly and does not differentiate between age groups. Zika was first recorded in Micronesia and after that in Brazil in Subsequently, it became more widespread internationally. It is transmitted by mosquitoes. Zika is of considerable concern because it causes severe deformities microcephalus in about one percent of the unborn children of infected mothers.
It was not long before individuals in most nations were infected. In addition, it has significantly reduced and disrupted economic and social activity. Nevertheless, its negative effects have been mitigated to a notable extent by the availability of advances in information and communication technology ICT.
This has enabled many individuals but by no means all to work from home and has helped to sustain social connectivity. An interesting question is whether the COVID pandemic will bring about permanent economic, social and political changes and what might they be?
Will it change the course of history as the Black Death is believed to have done? It is, of course, too early to say. However, one possibility is that it will permanently lead to an increase in the incidence of working from home and also considerably accelerate and maintain the greater use of the internet. This increased use can, for example, be anticipated for conferencing, seminars, meetings, online learning for instance, via Zoom and Webinair , for social contacts, for economic trading and for financial transactions.
Whether or not all of these trends are socially and psychologically desirable remains an open question Tisdell, a. With the above general historical background in mind, let us consider some of the important economic and social problems associated with management of the COVID pandemic, as well as some relevant political aspects.
Only selected aspects can be covered in this article. Contagious diseases capable of becoming pandemics can take varied forms and therefore, appropriate policies for controlling them often differ. Determining appropriate economic policies to respond to the outbreak and human-to-human spread of COVID has proven to be extremely challenging because major measures to stem the level of infections and death rates from the disease involve a high economic cost in terms of the levels of income and economic production forgone.
These control measures have included the isolation of individuals, restrictions on gatherings and on travel. They were seen as necessary especially in the early stages of mass infections with COVID to flatten the upward trend in the curve of infections and reduce the increase in deaths and to enable hospitals to increase their capacity to provide for patients requiring hospitalization.
While it is not possible in this article to consider all economic aspects of responding to the novel virus, COVID, Fig. Although many countries have now sufficient capacity to admit COVID patients, many less developed countries do not. So the problem is still relevant. In Fig. It might be of a logistic form because the initial expansion of this capacity takes time and once physical capacity ramps up, increasing scarcity of qualified staff to operate hospitals can become a major constraint.
Each also corresponds to different levels of social restrictions imposed by the government to limit the spread of COVID The shape of these curves might differ from those shown. The ones shown are for illustrative purposes only.
The nationwide lockdown was imposed in India following novel coronavirus pandemic. In this paper, we discuss socio-economic, health and National healthcare challenges following lockdown, with focus on population belonging to low socio-economic stratum SES. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. In addition, existing guidelines including those by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, and articles from several non-academic sources e. While the nationwide lockdown has resulted in financial losses and has affected all segments of society, the domino effect on health, healthcare and nutrition could possibly pose major setbacks to previously gained successes of National health programs.
A social issue is a problem that influences many citizens within a society. It is a group of common problem in present-day society and one that many people strive to solve. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual's control.
This article contributes to the assessment of public policies to control the incidence of COVID in several ways. Bergson-type welfare functions are utilized in the second model. It also critically examines the proposition that the isolation lockdown of social groups is a desirable method of limiting the incidence of COVID This leads onto the consideration of the extent to which personal freedom of choice liberty ought to be restricted in response to the COVID pandemic. A brief outline follows illustrating the factors that are likely to hinder economic recovery from COVID
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Наконец она остановилась, и дверь открылась. Покашливая, Сьюзан неуверенно шагнула в темный коридор с цементными стенами. Она оказалась в тоннеле, очень узком, с низким потолком. Перед ней, исчезая где-то в темноте, убегали вдаль две желтые линии. Подземная шоссейная дорога… Сьюзан медленно шла по этому туннелю, то и дело хватаясь за стены, чтобы сохранить равновесие. Позади закрылась дверь лифта, и она осталась одна в пугающей темноте. В окружающей ее тишине не было слышно ничего, кроме слабого гула, идущего от стен.
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