File Name: meaning and definition of intelligence .zip
While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology , there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence. Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability. Others believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents. Intelligence has been a controversial topic throughout psychology's history.
How would you define intelligence? How has Wechsler defined Intelligence? State any five characteristics of Intelligence. Do you think that intelligence is innate? What do the modern psychologists say about it? Point out the classifications as well as types of Intelligence given by Thurstone. What are the classifications of intelligence explained by E. What are the two broad categories of intelligence test? Mention them briefly. The following diagram shows the classification of intelligence tests clearly dividing them mainly into two tests i.
Let us now briefly discuss these classifications of intelligence tests: Individual Verbal tests require the involving of language and they are to be administered to an individual at a time. Stanford-Binet Scale is an example of Individual verbal tests.
It is the revised form of Binet-Simon scale. Binet-Simon scale as well as the revised form of Stanford-Binet Scale is used for measuring intelligence of an individual. Terman, through this scale, introduced the concept of I. Intelligence quotient by correlating the mental Age with Chronological age. In another revision was carried on with the help of Maud A.
This scale is widely used as an individual intelligence test. In , the French Minister of Public Instruction appointed a commission to formulate methods and to make recommendations for the instruction of feeble-minded children in the public schools in Paris.
Alfread Binet was a French citizen. He was interested in the treatment of abnormal children. He was also a member of that Commission which was formed by the French Minister. Binet prepared the first rough scale of intelligence test in collaboration with Theophile Simion, which was introduced to test the feeble minded children. Actually, Alfread Binet is said to be the father of intelligence test construction movement. Binet-Simon scale arranged 30items, graded for different levels.
This scale included item like at age 3- point out the nose, eyes, mouth and eyes. At age 7- Tell what is missing in the unfinished picture. Terman as well as Merril through revising the scale, introduced to measure the intelligence of individual, extending from age 2 to 22 years.
The task to be performed by the subjects individuals in these intelligence tests range from simple manipulation to abstract reasoning. Intelligence quotient by correlating the Mental Age with Chronological age. The formula of Intelligence Quotient is :.
Individual Performance tests: Individual Performance test is a non-verbal or non-language test of intelligence for testing an individual. In these performance tests, the contents and responses are in the form of performance and language is not used at all. In these tests the items which require responses in terms of motor activities are included. Block building or cube construction, to fit the block in the holes, tracing a maze, picture arrangement or picture completion are some of the activities of Performance individual tests.
In India, Dr. Group Verbal Intelligence tests: These tests require the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals at a time. Group Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests: These tests do not necessitate the use of language and are applicable to a group of individuals at a given time. In theses tests, material does not contain the test words or numerical figures. It contains pictures, diagrams and geometrical figures etc. Chicago Non-Verbal test is most useful for young children aged between 12 to 13 years.
It is a very popular non-verbal group test of intelligence. As regards the growth of intelligence and their individual level, certain marked levels have been discovered in the following ways: 1. Low Intelligent group- these includes idiots, imbeciles, morons. Feeble minded 3.
Normal or Average 4. Superior 5. Very Superior 6. The following table illustrates the relationship between I. The table is based on the studies by Terman and Merril. Learning Objectives 2. Introduction 3. Concept and Definition of Intelligence 1. Characteristics of Intelligence.
Types of Intelligence 3. Classification of Intelligence Test 4. Theories of Intelligence. Meaning and Concept of Creativity 1. Nature and Characteristics of Creativity 2. Creativity and Intelligence 5.
Let Us Sum Up 6. Further Readings 7. Answers to Check Your Progress 8. Possible Questions 9. Identify the Characteristics of Intelligence.
Identify the various Types of Intelligence. Classified the Intelligence Tests. Describe the Theories of Intelligence. In this unit, we are going to discuss the concept of intelligence, its characteristics, its various types and tests and the theories that give us insight into the real meaning of intelligence and its importance as a study in education process.
Intelligence is a general mental ability that makes man as a rational being due to his possession and demonstration of the reasoning capacity.
The cognitive faculties like observation, imagination, conception and reasoning are included in the meaning of intelligence. Hence, in a word, we may say that intelligence is not a thing or object but it is a way of acting in a situation.
Intelligence is a very wide concept which not only means the intellectual activities but also includes the capabilities for solving practical problems of life as well. It is intelligence that makes man differ from the animal. Endowed with certain cognitive abilities man is able to reason, think, discriminate, understand, adjust and face new situations.
Therefore, man is superior to animals in all such aspects of behavior. Besides these, attitude, interest, knowledge, skill etc. One group of psychologists have defined intelligence as a general mental ability to learn. Another group have defined intelligence as the power of adaptation or adjustment to his or her environment.
Terman has defined intelligence as the ability to carry on abstract thinking. Stern, according to him, Intelligence means a general capacity of an individual consciously to adjust his thinking to new requirements.
It is general a mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life. A comprehensive definition of intelligence is given by Wechsler. From the above definitions of intelligence, we can find out the real structure of intelligence and what it actually is. It reveals that intelligence is a capacity of an organism, allround mental efficiency possessing the power of discrimination and adjustment to a relatively novel situation.
It means that intelligence is such a capacity through which we can judge well, understand properly and reason well and thus it helps basically —. After going through the concept and various definitions of intelligence, now we are able to understand that intelligence is not a single or simple faculty, but a compound of various elements.
Following characteristics reveal clearly the concept and ideas of intelligence. Intelligence is the power or capacity of human being: Intelligence is the power or capacity of human being which helps to make reason, understanding and well-judgment. Intelligence is the capacity which is innate as well as acquired. Intelligence means all-round mental efficiency: All round mental efficiency means that it includes all the qualities in mental development of an individual. Through the process of intelligence the whole general and abstract thinking, reasoning powers are revealed.
Intelligence is a power of good responses from the point of truth: As a global or aggregate capacity of an individual, intelligence is a conglomeration of many powers as a whole in the structure of truth. Intelligence is the ability of adaptation and adjusting to a new situation: According to Wells, an eminent psychologist, intelligence is the property of recombining our behavior pattern so as to act better in a novel situation.
It means that intelligence is the potent factor through which the adjustment and re-adjustment to any situation is easily possible. Intelligence is the ability for abstract thinking as well as the capacity to learn from the past experience: Intelligence is the ability to think abstractly. It is also the capacity to learn from the past experience and hence, it makes the profitable use of the past. Intelligence is not knowledge though acquisition of knowledge depends to a great extent on intelligence and vice-versa.
Intelligence is not a guarantee against abnormal behaviour, backwardness and delinquency in spite of the fact that it is one of the factors contributing towards achievement, adjustment and character formation of a person.
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'intelligence. Send us feedback. Middle English, from Middle French, from Latin intelligentia , from intelligent-, intelligens intelligent. See more words from the same century. Accessed 10 Mar. More Definitions for intelligence. See the full definition for intelligence in the English Language Learners Dictionary.
The articles in this special issue provide an overview of the wide breadth of questions and methodologies that arise when the research devoted to intelligence intersect with the research devoted to U. The unique contributions of each paper are highlighted and discussed based on their contribution to the literature. The implications of these findings for educational research and policy are briefly discussed. The use of standardized tests within education in the United States is historically fraught with controversy. At a national level, assessments such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study are used to determine the academic achievement of public school children within and between schools and states over time.
It might seem useless to define such a simple word. After all, we have all heard this word hundreds of times and probably have a general understanding of its meaning. However, the concept of intelligence has been a widely debated topic among members of the psychology community for decades. Intelligence has been defined in many ways: higher level abilities such as abstract reasoning, mental representation, problem solving, and decision making , the ability to learn, emotional knowledge, creativity, and adaptation to meet the demands of the environment effectively. Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "the mental abilities necessary for adaptation to, as well as shaping and selection of, any environmental context , p. Table of contents.
Much of the excitement among investigators in the field of intelligence derives from their attempts to determine exactly what intelligence is. Different investigators have emphasized different aspects of intelligence in their definitions. Thorndike differed over the definition of intelligence, Terman stressing the ability to think abstractly and Thorndike emphasizing learning and the ability to give good responses to questions. More recently, however, psychologists have generally agreed that adaptation to the environment is the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does. Such adaptation may occur in a variety of settings: a student in school learns the material he needs to know in order to do well in a course; a physician treating a patient with unfamiliar symptoms learns about the underlying disease; or an artist reworks a painting to convey a more coherent impression.
As in other experimental sciences, investigators build devices in this case, computer programs to carry out their experimental investigations. The multiple intelligence theory is that people possess eight types of intelligence: linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, motor ability, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic intelligence. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that attempts to understand the essence of intelligence and produce a new intelligent machine that responds in a manner similar to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence AI , and, in particular, deep learning as a subcategory of AI, provides opportunities for the discovery and development of innovative drugs. The last decade has marked the evolution of artificial intelligence which has been ushered in with tremendous hype and enthusiasm and dentistry is no exception.
How would you define intelligence? How has Wechsler defined Intelligence? State any five characteristics of Intelligence. Do you think that intelligence is innate? What do the modern psychologists say about it? Point out the classifications as well as types of Intelligence given by Thurstone.
This chapter reviews major theories of intelligence. The theories are grouped into four major theory types: 1 psychometric theories; 2 cognitive theories; 3 cognitive-contextual theories; and 4 biological theories. Psychometric theories derive from studying individual differences in test performance on cognitive tests. Questions about the structure of human intelligence, including the importance of general intelligence, have dominated the psychometric theories. Cognitive theories derive from studying the processes involved in intelligent performance. These processes range from the very simple e.
Ну и полет, придурок, - издевательски хмыкнул парень с тремя косичками. Беккер прищурился от внезапной вспышки яркого света. Это был тот самый парень, за которым он гнался от автобусной остановки. Беккер мрачно оглядел море красно-бело-синих причесок. - Что у них с волосами? - превозмогая боль, спросил он, показывая рукой на остальных пассажиров. - Они все… - Красно-бело-синие? - подсказал парень.
Я вызвал тебя сюда, потому что мне нужен союзник, а не следователь. Сегодня у меня было ужасное утро.
Беккер заглянул в справочник Управления общей бухгалтерской отчетности США, но не нашел в нем ничего похожего. Заинтригованный, он позвонил одному из своих партнеров по теннису, бывшему политологу, перешедшему на службу в Библиотеку конгресса. Слова приятеля его очень удивили. Дело в том, что АНБ не только существовало, но и считалось одной из самых влиятельных правительственных организаций в США и во всем мире.
Не понимаю, - сказала. - Мы же говорим не о реверсии какой-либо сложной функции, а о грубой силе. PGP, Lucifer, DSA - не важно. Алгоритм создает шифр, который кажется абсолютно стойким, а ТРАНСТЕКСТ перебирает все варианты, пока не находит ключ.
Solo el escroto. Он с трудом сдержал улыбку. - Только лишь мошонка. Офицер гордо кивнул: - Да. Когда церковь получит все останки этого великого человека, она причислит его к лику святых и разместит отдельные части его тела в разных соборах, чтобы все могли проникнуться их величием.
Еще несколько сантиметров, подумал Джабба. Работа заняла намного больше времени, чем он рассчитывал. Когда он поднес раскаленный конец паяльника к последнему контакту, раздался резкий звонок мобильного телефона. Джабба вздрогнул, и на руку ему упала шипящая капля жидкого олова.
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