File Name: rural water supply and sanitation .zip
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Water is essential for sustenance of life and determines the overall socio- economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. The MDG in water supply and sanitation aims to half the proportion of people without access to potable water supply and basic sanitation. More recent statements of the MDGs refer to the right of communities to have access to an adequate supply of safe water. Safe rural water supply coverage in this context is taken to mean water that does not represent a significant health risk; that is of sufficient quantity to meet all domestic needs; that is available continuously to all of the people and is affordable.
This study assessed Bushenyi-Ishaka, a municipality in Uganda situated at the rural—urban transition, with a focus on service ladder indictors. Households in more urban as compared to rural cells were more likely to use improved water sources including piped water on-premises , make regular payments for water, rely on shared sanitation facilities, and make use of manual sludge emptying services.
These findings suggest that small town servicing models should prioritize non-sewered sanitation management, including incentives for safe excreta containment and disposal opportunities.
This study also highlights a need for integrated services models to expand rural—urban water and sanitation coverage. During the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in extending access to water and sanitation services globally.
The aforementioned estimates are derived from standard definitions of access provided by the JMP, which enable comparisons of progress toward universal targets within and across countries and regions. However, such definitions may provide a limited picture of service provision realities that households experience in everyday life 3. For instance, criteria used in policy documents to define urban and rural areas are locally defined and vary extensively between nations 4 , 5.
This variability challenges the reporting of disaggregated data, which may lead to incomparable data sets and difficulties and inaccuracies in analyzing global trends in both rural and urban environments 1. Small towns often combine urbanized centres with surrounding areas typical of rural settings within their administrative boundaries. The categorization of small towns may differ among countries and regions in terms of population size, administrative importance or economic structure 4.
Yet a common characteristic of small towns is their potential as local economic nodes that attract rural migrants from surrounding regions 6. In Uganda, rural-to-urban migration has resulted in higher urban populations, with the most urban growth being among people below the age of 30 7.
In addition to having implications for the global monitoring of service delivery trends, categorization of small towns as urban or rural also determines the allocation of budgets and assistance programs, as well as the degree of autonomy granted for the implementation of civil infrastructure projects 8. They typically include rural socio-economic characteristics while also requiring urban-type technologies for water provision This paper aims to contribute to a growing body of literature on water service provision in small towns to unravel the particularities and challenges of providing public services in such rural—urban environments 8 , 9 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , We focus on the experience of Uganda's National Water and Sewerage Corporation NWSC and hypothesize that access and service modalities vary when moving from urban-like to rural-like areas of small towns.
This paper analyses water supply, sanitation and hygiene coverage trends across a rural—urban transition zone in south-western Uganda, drawing on a survey of households, water quality sampling, and complementary qualitative studies that were conducted in the same study area.
Respondents were asked to give their answers on behalf of the entire household, defined as the people who eat and sleep together in the home on a regular basis.
Over three quarters of respondents had been born in Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality and currently resided there to live and work for the entirety of the year.
Taken together, these results show that households had education and literacy levels similar to urbanized areas of Uganda, but at the same time had a livelihoods strategy dependent on agricultural activities Boreholes, community taps, rainwater harvesting, and surface water streams or rivers were less commonly used Supplementary Table 1.
To probe whether water supply accessibility varied between more urban versus more rural areas of Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality, cells were categorized according to their housing density, i. A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the relationship between indicators of access and density strata. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between the density strata and the use of protected springs or safely managed water sources Table 2.
Such heterogeneity at local scales has implications for infrastructure planning and resource allocation Survey respondents attributed the longer wait time at springs to their slow recharge rates at the end of the dry season, when the survey team visited.
These respondents said they did so because they preferred the taste of spring water or they perceived the source closest to their home to be unsafe or too costly. Taken together, these results show a continuum of service models from low to high density areas of Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality. That is, nearly half of the households located in densely populated urbanized cells were paying for mainly piped water services on a volumetric basis, whereas the vast majority of households residing in more sparsely populated rural cells were relying on free water sources such as protected springs.
Households generally perceived the quality of their main drinking water source to be good, with only one in ten survey respondents saying their drinking water was bad or very bad. Enumerators collected 95 samples from drinking water sources and samples from household water storage containers. Among samples originating from a piped source, the mean free residual chlorine FRC concentration was 0.
Bivariate comparisons across source types show that both source and household stored water samples from improved water sources were significantly less contaminated than those from unimproved sources Table 4. Samples taken from yard or in-house piped water taps were also less contaminated than samples from other source types.
However, stored water samples from households with piped water on premises were no cleaner than stored water originating from other sources, indicating recontamination of piped water supplies when storage was necessary e. Figure 1 shows the spatial distribution of contamination risk categories among improved and unimproved sources, corroborating the results of the statistical analysis. Figure 2 shows how water quality generally deteriorates from source collection to household storage containers.
Spatial distribution of improved and unimproved water sources with contamination risk categories shown. Spatial distribution of household water storage containers top half of circle and their corresponding water sources bottom half of circle with contamination risk categories shown.
Circles have been shifted to improve visibility and do not correspond to the exact location for all households. All surveyed households used non-sewered facilities providing either a basic i. Some households might also have flush toilets that drain directly to cesspools, since the local municipality does not have records of constructed septic tanks and respondents were often unaware of underground infrastructure One out of 10 respondents said their household regularly switched to a different sanitation option, most often from a private on-plot to a shared on-plot facility.
One reason given for the switch was the water shortages experienced during the dry season or daytime 19 , This mainly affected households with flush toilets who also retained an on-plot pit latrines for use during emergencies or large social gatherings Nyakutsikwa further noted that some households struggled with pit destruction during the rainy season.
Reasons given for not emptying or re-using sanitation infrastructure were that it was cheaper to build a new facility, the superstructure was too old or poorly designed, or being unaware of emptying services. Despite municipal by-laws that discourage manual emptying due to concerns about environmental and public health risks, households tended to prefer this option to motorized emptying because more sludge was removed, it was less expensive, and wait times were shorter.
The frequency of emptying ranged from monthly to annually for pits and every 10 years for septic tanks While manual emptiers reported having adequate profits and return on investment, this perspective likely does not account for occupational health and safety considerations.
Nyakutsikwa observed manual labourers entering pits without appropriate personal protective clothing. These labourers further reported struggling with chest pain and infectious diseases, which they claimed were caused by exposure to chemicals and fumes from emptying.
Moreover, they shared concerns about pits collapsing due to poor construction. Lastly, Nyakutsikwa notes that the limited monitoring and corollary expenses associated with safely transporting and disposing sludge in Mbarara likely results in most collected sludge being illegally dumped in nearby swamps There was no statistically significant relationship between cell level housing density and the observed condition of the handwashing facility, nor the observed presence of soap.
Households reported problems with children playing with or damaging the handwashing station. Users of shared sanitation facilities were often unsure who was responsible for maintaining facilities, including the handwashing station, and said it was easier to wash their hands within the home or carry their own jerrycan to the toilet for personal use.
Most households had sought some sort of treatment, with 12 going to a local hospital, 9 visiting a pharmacy, and 2 using traditional medicine. This study examined the case of Bushenyi-Ishaka, a municipality in southwestern Uganda that is typical of other rural—urban transition zones in sub-Saharan Africa.
We aimed to describe the distinguishing features of water supply and sanitation services operating across the municipality, with the central hypothesis being that access rates and service modalities vary when moving from more urban to more rural areas. We used a randomized sampling approach to maximize the external validity of the survey results, such that conclusions lend insight to similar rural—urban transition zones across sub-Saharan Africa.
Over three-quarters of the households surveyed in Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality enjoyed access to an improved water source. Such improved sources were less likely to be impacted by faecal contamination as compared to unimproved sources, resulting in improved water quality at the point of consumption. These findings are aligned with a meta-analysis that reported piped water supplies globally were less likely to be contaminated with faecal pollution as compared to other source types However, in contrast to the aforementioned study, we did not find that households with piped water on premises had superior stored water quality.
This finding suggests that service models aiming for universal access to safely managed water at the rural—urban divide must prioritize not only piped water services on-premises, but also sufficient reliability such that the need for household level storage of drinking water is minimized. Across all density strata nearly half of survey respondents reported using a protected spring without paying, many of whom said they bypassed a closer source that charged a fee for use.
Other water service characteristics, such as location on plot, a NWSC managed tap, and regular payments for water, were more likely to be found in more as compared to less densely populated cells, suggesting that these measures are defining features of urban neighbourhoods in Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality.
The survey results indicated that households utilized non-sewered sanitation facilities regardless of financial ability. Complementary qualitative research suggests that poorly built infrastructure and unsafe faecal sludge management are likely to be contaminating the environment and thereby endangering public health.
Continued use of unimproved pit latrines due to seasonal factors and after upgrading sanitation infrastructure also sheds light on the need to account for seasonality and affordability to minimize households climbing up and down the service ladder. Illegal and unregulated manual emptying services introduced further environmental and public health risks from faecal contamination, especially to manual labourers. These health concerns suggest a need for NWSC to increase its support for non-sewered sanitation options, and especially for safe and financially viable excreta management across the sanitation value chain.
Rao et al. Provisions for manual labourers can be informed by ongoing research from South Africa and Bangladesh 24 , Most households lacked handwashing facilities adjacent to toilet infrastructure. Households that had handwashing basins reported inconsistent handwashing behaviour following toilet use, as not all had dedicated hand basins with soap and water.
Some respondents further indicated a preference to wash their hands within their domicile following use of toilets located outside their dwelling, due to uncertainties regarding who was responsible for maintaining the facility. Limited infrastructure and inconsistent handwashing behaviour highlights the need for a two-fold approach to increase hygiene practices.
The results of this study are subject to a few limitations. First, about one quarter of survey respondents were the male head of household, who may have been less aware of domestic water supply and sanitation issues as compared to women in the home. Second, plot-level observations reported in the survey might have been subject to different interpretations by the enumeration team. This study indicates that small towns are not only heterogeneous among themselves, but are also diverse within the administrative boundaries delimiting these towns, since they can embody characteristics of urban centres and remote rural areas.
All surveyed households used non-sewered sanitation facilities, and most of these facilities did not achieve safe containment or disposal of excreta. Households in the urban areas of Bushenyi-Ishaka Municipality were distinguished from rural areas by a greater likelihood to have an improved on-plot water supply, pay regularly for water services, rely on a shared sanitation facility, and make use of pit emptying services. This spectrum of characteristics across the rural—urban transition zone has implications for planning and resource allocation, as well as indicates a need for more integrated service models suitable to the diverse and dynamic environment of small towns.
As of the last census in , the population is estimated at The NWSC was established in and works in tandem with town administrations and local municipalities that are responsible for public health services such as sanitation and solid waste management.
From , NWSC began expanding its geographic coverage area from the cities of Kampala, Entebbe and Jinja to include towns and rural municipalities throughout the country. From to , the number of towns serviced ballooned from 23 to , and at present NWSC services designated urban areas.
Through this process NWSC has primarily replicated its servicing framework and mechanisms from its Kampala water and sanitation operations. Smaller urban centres and rural municipalities have small sewer networks and low levels of household connections, making the unit operation costs high for piped water and sewerage.
The water supply and sanitation in India has increased greatly from to present. Still, many people lack access to clean water, toilets, and sewage infrastructure. Various government programs at national, state, and community level have brought rapid improvements in sanitation and the drinking water supply. Some of these programs are ongoing. At the same time, local government institutions mandated to provide drinking water and sanitation services are seen as weak and lack the financial resources to carry out their functions.
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Challenges in Latin America for the Next Decade. Author. Glenn Pearce-Oroz, Regional Director for Latin America and the.
However, in , Bangladesh has a low level of cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency , especially in urban areas where revenues from water sales do not cover operating costs. The government has adopted policies that could remedy the challenges in the sector. These policies emphasize decentralization, user participation, the role of women, and appropriate pricing rules.
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