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Literature And Language Teaching Gillian Lazar Pdf

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This article focuses on how literary texts can be used with elementary and lower intermediate students. Common difficulties with using literature at this level are considered, and the kinds of knowledge and skills which these students need to develop are briefly mentioned. A series of tasks and activities for exploiting three different poems is then presented.

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Literature and language teaching: a guide for teachers and trainers

By Lindsay Clandfield. It has only been since the s that this area has attracted more interest among EFL teachers. The purpose of this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom.

There are also links to classroom activities and lessons with literature that you can download and use straight away. What is literature? First of all, any method or approach towards using literature in the classroom must take as a starting point the question: What is literature? The Macmillan English Dictionary gives the following definition:.

Many authors, critics and linguists have puzzled over what literature is. One broader explanation of literature says that literary texts are products that reflect different aspects of society.

Other linguists say that there is no inherent quality to a literary text that makes a literary text, rather it is the interpretation that the reader gives to the text Eagleton This brings us back to the above definition in the sense that literature is only literature if it is considered as art. Before doing any study of a literary text with your learners, one idea would be to ask them what they think literature is.

Why use literature? There are many good reasons for using literature in the classroom. Here are a few:. How the teacher will use a literary text depends on the model they choose. The cultural model views a literary text as a product. This means that it is treated as a source of information about the target culture.

It is the most traditional approach, often used in university courses on literature. The cultural model will examine the social, political and historical background to a text, literary movements and genres.

There is no specific language work done on a text. This approach tends to be quite teacher-centred. The language model aims to be more learner-centred. As learners proceed through a text, they pay attention to the way language is used.

They come to grips with the meaning and increase their general awareness of English. Within this model of studying literature, the teacher can choose to focus on general grammar and vocabulary in the same way that these are presented in coursebooks for example or use stylistic analysis.

Stylistic analysis involves the close study of the linguistic features of the text to enable students to make meaningful interpretations of the text — it aims to help learners read and study literature more competently.

The personal growth model is also a process-based approach and tries to be more learner-centred. This model encourages learners to draw on their own opinions, feelings and personal experiences. It aims for interaction between the text and the reader in English, helping make the language more memorable. This model recognises the immense power that literature can have to move people and attempts to use that in the classroom.

Both are based on short texts: either extracts or poems. Using literature over a longer period of time — the set novel or reader The above lesson plans are all based on short extracts or poems and can therefore easily be used over one class period. However, there are very good reasons for encouraging learners to read books.

Extensive reading is an excellent way of improving English, and it can be very motivating to finish an entire book in another language. In addition, many international exams have certain optional questions on them that pertain to set novels each year.

One option that is now available to language teachers is the wide range of simplified and inexpensive versions of literary texts, called readers see Onestop Shop for a list of readers for different levels. Setting up a class library of novels and readers, if you have the resources, is an excellent idea. Tim Bowen and Jonathan Marks, in their book Inside Teaching , recommend the following ideas for extensive reading of literature:. DIY literature lesson plan In our first Methodology article on Using Literature, there were two sample lesson plans based on an excerpt or a short story.

Both followed a similar lesson plan format, outlined below. This sort of lesson plan works well for extracts from stories, poems or extracts from plays. Stage one: warmer There are two different possible routes you can take for this stage:. Stage two: before reading This stage could be optional, or it may be a part of the warmer.

Preparing to read activities include:. With very evocative pieces of literature or poetry this can be quite powerful. Then I let students read it to themselves. It is important to let students approach a piece of literature the first time without giving them any specific task other than to simply read it.

One of the aims of teaching literature is to evoke interest and pleasure from the language. If students have to do a task at every stage of a literature lesson, the pleasure can be lost. Once students have read it once, you can set comprehension questions or ask them to explain the significance of certain key words of the text.

Another way of checking comprehension is to ask students to explain to each other in pairs what they have understood. This could be followed up by more subjective questions e.

Why do you think X said this? How do you think the woman feels? What made him do this? At this stage get to grips with the more difficult words in the text.

See how many of the unfamiliar words students can get from context. Give them clues. You could also look at certain elements of style that the author has used. Remember that there is some use in looking at non-standard forms of language to understand the standard.

If appropriate to the text, look at the connotation of words which the author has chosen. Stage five: follow up activities Once you have read and worked with your piece of literature it might naturally lead on to one or more follow up activities. Here are some ideas:. Using extracts from stories or short stories. Using extracts from plays Most of the ideas from stories above could be applied here, but obviously, this medium gives plenty of opportunity for students to do some drama in the classroom.

Here are some possibilities:. Potential problems Problem 1: Where do I find material? Of course you may have a novel or book of poetry that you have been dying to use with your students for a long time.

But where can you get more material? The internet brings you instant access to many works of literature. Use a search engine. Usually it is enough to key in the name of the author or the book you are looking for.

Older books and plays can sometimes be found entirely on-line. Look for literature from other English speaking countries there is lots and lots to give your students a richer variety of work written in the English language.

You can also try the following link: www. Problem 2: How do I choose material? Think about the following factors when you choose a piece of literature to use with learners:.

Problem 3: Is the text too difficult? Obviously a teacher would not want to use a text that is completely beyond their learners. This would ultimately be frustrating for everyone involved. However, the immediate difficulty with vocabulary in a text might not be an obstacle to its comprehension.

Learners can be trained to infer meaning of difficult words from context. The selection of a text must be given careful thought, but also the treatment of the text by the teacher this means think about the tasks you set for a reading of a piece of literature, not just the text.

Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature , Longman Learn about the best ways to use pair work in the class in this Advancing Teaching article and video. With more than , registered users in over countries around the world, Onestopenglish is the number one resource site for English language teachers, providing access to thousands of resources, including lesson plans, worksheets, audio, video and flashcards.

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Literature and language teaching: a guide for teachers and trainers

Using a novel with the English language learner provides a rich source of pedagogic activities. At the same time, it gives rise to its own set of difficulties—both practical and literary. In this article, I begin by attempting to identify some features of novels which provide unusual educational and linguistic opportunities for the learner. I then examine some of the difficulties both teachers and students may experience in using novels in the classroom and provide sample materials that I have devised in an attempt to overcome these problems. These activities were produced for one particular novel.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT) BY GILLIAN LAZAR PDF. If you obtain the published book Literature And Language Teaching: A Guide For Teachers And.


Literature and Language Teaching : A Guide for Teachers and Trainers

Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover.

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Literature and Language Learning in the EFL Classroom

This article focuses on how literary texts can be used with elementary and lower intermediate students. Common difficulties with using literature at this level are considered, and the kinds of knowledge and skills which these students need to develop are briefly mentioned. A series of tasks and activities for exploiting three different poems is then presented. The types of task and activity aim not only to help teachers overcome the difficulties of using literature at this level, but also to extend the students' grammatical and lexical knowledge, and improve their overall language awareness.

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Carte Lazar Literature and Language Teaching

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Carte Lazar Literature and Language Teaching

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Literature And Language Teachinga Guide For Teachers And ikafisipundip.org Kai Her. Introduction xii1 Using literature in the language classroom: 1 The issues an article by the author:Lazar, 'Metaphorically Speaking' in SIGMA, Issue No.

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