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Difference Between N Type And P Type Semiconductor Pdf

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Here we will see the difference between N-type and P-type semiconductors. We also see the definition of p type and n type semiconductor.

There are two general categories of semiconductors: intrinsic semiconductors, which are composed of only one material, and extrinsic semiconductors, which have had other substances added to them to alter their properties. In semiconductor production, the process of creating extrinsic semiconductors by adding substances to a pure semiconductor for the purposes of modulating its electrical properties is known as doping. Semiconductors are doped to generate either a surplus or a deficiency in valence electrons. Electrons in free atoms have discrete energy values.

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Both p and n are the basic semiconductors arrived from the concept of doping. Hence the basic difference between p and n-type is the way or the nature of the doping involved. Semiconductors can be differentiated as intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. P-type and N-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors. Although they are categorized under the same category of extrinsic there behaviors are extremely different based on its dopants. However, they have Fermi levels lying towards conduction or valence band based on its type.

Both p-type and n-type semiconductor is the classification of extrinsic semiconductors. The major factor that generates a difference between p-type and n-type semiconductor lies in their doping material. A p-type semiconductor material is formed by the addition of group III elements or we can say trivalent impurity to a pure intrinsic semiconductor. On the contrary, the n-type semiconductor material is formed by the addition of group V elements i. Some other factors also exist that generates major differences between the two. We will discuss these differences in detail but before proceeding towards that have a look at the contents that are to be discussed under this article.

Difference between P-type Semiconductor and N-type Semiconductor

An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped ; during manufacture of the semiconductor crystal a trace element or chemical called a doping agent has been incorporated chemically into the crystal, for the purpose of giving it different electrical properties than the pure semiconductor crystal, which is called an intrinsic semiconductor. In an extrinsic semiconductor it is these foreign dopant atoms in the crystal lattice that mainly provide the charge carriers which carry electric current through the crystal. The doping agents used are of two types, resulting in two types of extrinsic semiconductor. An electron donor dopant is an atom which, when incorporated in the crystal, releases a mobile conduction electron into the crystal lattice. An extrinsic semiconductor which has been doped with electron donor atoms is called an n-type semiconductor , because the majority of charge carriers in the crystal are negative electrons. An electron acceptor dopant is an atom which accepts an electron from the lattice, creating a vacancy where an electron should be called a hole which can move through the crystal like a positively charged particle. An extrinsic semiconductor which has been doped with electron acceptor atoms is called a p-type semiconductor , because the majority of charge carriers in the crystal are positive holes.

We know that the p-type and n-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors. The classification of the semiconductor can be done based on doping like intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. There are many factors that generate the main difference between these two semiconductors. The formation of p-type semiconductor material can be done by adding the group III elements. Similarly, the n-type semiconductor material can be formed by adding group V elements. This article discusses the difference between P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor.

The various factors like doping element, nature of doping element, the majority and minority carriers in the p-type and n-type semiconductor. The density of electrons and holes, energy level and Fermi level, the direction of movement of majority carriers, etc. The difference between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor is given below in the tabulated form. The p-type semiconductor is formed when the Trivalent impurity is added to the pure semiconductor. Similarly, when a Pentavalent impurity is added to the pure semiconductor n-type semiconductor is obtained. Your email address will not be published.

Difference between P Type and N Type Semiconductor

The process of purposefully adding impurities to materials is called doping; semiconductors with impurities are referred to as "doped semiconductors". In a pure intrinsic Si or Ge semiconductor, each nucleus uses its four valence electrons to form four covalent bonds with its neighbors see figure below. Since there are no excess electrons or holes In this case, the number of electrons and holes present at any given time will always be equal. An intrinsic semiconductor. Now, if one of the atoms in the semiconductor lattice is replaced by an element with three valence electrons, such as a Group 3 element like Boron B or Gallium Ga , the electron-hole balance will be changed.

The P Type and N Type are two different types of semiconductors; specifically they are types of extrinsic semiconductors. Semiconductors come in two primary types: intrinsic and extrinsic. The adding of the doping agents changes the electron and hole carrier concentrations of the semiconductor at thermal equilibrium.

We know that the p-type and n-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors. The classification of the semiconductor can be done based on doping like intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. There are many factors that generate the main difference between these two semiconductors. The formation of p-type semiconductor material can be done by adding the group III elements. Similarly, the n-type semiconductor material can be formed by adding group V elements.

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Doping: Connectivity of Semiconductors

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Difference between P-type and N-type Semiconductors

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3 Comments

Conrelomort 10.12.2020 at 09:33

The impurity added in.

Aussieandy1983 12.12.2020 at 02:03

Write down 5 difference between N-type and P-type semiconductors. Medium.

Barry D. 12.12.2020 at 07:23

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