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In this paper we have done a comparative study of LIS professionals and managers of organizations and found more similarities than differences. This paper outlines and discusses the professional skills and necessary technological skills needed for library science professionals and managers. But what is library management that has not hitherto been taken for granted by senior librarians as their essential role as administrators of their libraries?

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Library and Information Sciences

In this paper we have done a comparative study of LIS professionals and managers of organizations and found more similarities than differences. This paper outlines and discusses the professional skills and necessary technological skills needed for library science professionals and managers.

But what is library management that has not hitherto been taken for granted by senior librarians as their essential role as administrators of their libraries?

No part of librarianship can be divorced from the concept of management - not even the more recondite aspects of professional activity such as palaeography or the bibliography of early printed books, for these, too, are concerned with the efficient control of such materials to make them readily accessible to readers.

Every librarian — certainly every senior librarian - has always been ipso facto a manager, even if he has not descended, as he might well say, to thinking of his duties in such mundane terms. In recent years, however, attention has increasingly been given to the need to analyze the ways in which a librarian can more effectively carry out his role of making his resources available to his readers.

This is not merely a question of the bibliographic control of the material itself, but also that of ensuring that the library staff are better equipped to ensure that this aim is achieved and that consequently readers are provided with the best possible service. In other words, the emphasis on management is now concerned particularly with methods of improving the efficiency of libraries.

New factors have arisen which require a librarian to take cognizance of matters which are more demanding of administrative acumen than was previously the case. One primary factor is, of course, the introduction of computer-based procedures to facilitate practical bibliographical work and thereby improve the technical efficiency of a library.

Another important factor is the recent evolution of industrial relations practices which require a librarian to become familiar with the legislation concerning staff relationships which dominates the contemporary scene to an extent not hitherto envisaged — though it is to be hoped that librarians never failed to recognize the need for satisfactory relationships with their staffs in the interest of making their libraries happy places in which to work and therefore effective in providing the human and physical environment in which their resources could be exploited.

One must take account also of the adoption of new methodologies such as the introduction of feasibility studies to determine the best methods of achieving particular aims and of surveys designed to measure the success of individual programmes in fulfilling their purposes.

A manager must exercise a unique set of skills. Similarly at various levels you require different types of skills.

Let us start by mentioning the skills required at the technical skill, human skill, conceptual skill, leading skills, planning level, organizing skills, controlling skills, decision-making skills. These skills refer to the personal ability put to use by the manager in specific position that he or she holds in the organizational hierarchy. As one moves up in the hierarchy of the managerial positions, the responsibility increases.

The fundamental functions of a manager such as planning, organizing, leading, controlling and decision-making are the skills required to be mastered by the managers. In order to exercise these functions, one has also to keep in mind, the type of job, the size of organization, the skills and experiences of the people one works with and the time available at his or her disposal to do these management functions.

Katz talks of three types of skills that are recognized by all managers. These are the technical, the human and the conceptual skills. The use of these skills differs for various levels of managers. Let us understand the skills first and then see how much each skill is used at various levels of managerial hierarchy and what importance each has in the career growth of a manager. It is the ability to work with resources in a particular area of expertise.

A surgeon must know how to do surgery. An accountant must know how to keep the accounts. Without the technical skill, one is not able to manage the work effectively. The first line supervisor in a manufacturing industry needs greater knowledge about the technical aspects of the job compared to the top boss. In a small manufacturing organization, even the top boss who owns the company needs to know a lot of technical skills.

In an age of specialization, technical skill is perhaps the most familiar one, required of the greatest number of people. Katz pointed out that mostly the vocational and on-the-job training programmes are concerned with developing this specialized technical skill. In your desire to become an efficient administrator, particularly at the first level, this skill becomes indispensable to efficient operation.

As a supervisor of a set of workers, you would like to ensure if your workers have sound grounding in the principle, structure and processes of their individual specialty along with actual practice and experience during which your workers are watched and helped by you as a superior. This appears to be the best way to develop the technical skill. A workshop superintendent knows how to ensure that his or her technician is well equipped with the technical skill required for the work.

An office superintendent ensures that persons work with him or her are having adequate technical skill for typing, shorthand, preparing draft etc.

Quite a lot of training programmes for equipping the people with technical skills are going on all over the country in industries, hospitals, banks and educational institutions.

As you move up in the managerial hierarchy, perhaps this skill becomes relatively less important than the human and conceptual skills. In a relatively small organization, where you yourself are the owner and at the top management level, you need a lot of technical skill yourself.

Every managerial level requires interaction with other people, whereas technical skill is primarily concerned with working with things processes or physical objects. The first level manager is involved on a regular basis with the personal problems and life events of many non-managers. It is therefore natural that he or she must be able to work through these personal situations and effectively lead subordinates.

He or she has to perceive and reorganize the perception of his or her superiors, equals and subordinates and his or her own behavior subsequently. If you have a highly developed human skills and if you are aware of your own attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs about other individuals and groups, you are able to see their usefulness and limitations.

Human skills can be developed without any formalized training for some. Many others are to be individually aided by their immediate superiors who themselves should possess the human skill in order to be able to impart that. With this change in attitude, there may also develop some active skill in dealing with human problems. You may probably improve your own human skill of rating people for their effectiveness as you become more experienced in this art.

Conceptual skill means the ability to see the organization as a whole and it includes recognizing how the various functions of the organization depend on one another. It also makes the individual aware how changes in any one part of the organization affect all the others.

It extends to visualizing the relationship of the individual business to the industry, the community and the political, social and economic forces of the nation as a whole. Thus the manager gains insight into improving the overall welfare of the total organization. As a manager you should have the ability to coordinate and integrate a variety of factors. You need to view situations and determine the inter-relatedness of various factors.

The success of any decision depends on the conceptual skill of the people who make the decision and those who put it into action. For example, you are trying to introduce some change in the working policy in your manufacturing organization. It is very important to know the effect of such a change on production of goods, control, finance, research and people involved in these processes. Finally, it is equally important right down to the last executive who must implement the new policy.

So at every level of the management, no matter which level you belong to, you have to recognize the overall relationships and significance of the change in order to be an effective manager.

With this the chances of your success as a manager are greatly increased. Look at the organization as a whole and try to understand the inter-relationship of its parts while introducing a change in policy. Management is the art of getting things done. A Presentation is a fast and potentially effective method of getting things done through other people.

Presentations are used as a formal method for bringing people together to plan, monitor and review its progress.

First; it puts you on display. Your staff needs to see evidence of decisive planning and leadership so that they are confident in your position as their manager. They need to be motivated and inspired to undertaking the tasks which you are presenting.

Project leaders from other sections need to be persuaded of the merits of your project and to provide any necessary support. Senior management should be impressed by your skill and ability so that they provide the resources so that you and your team can get the job done.

Second; it allows you to ask questions and to initiate discussion. It may not be suitable within the presentation formats of your company to hold a discussion during the presentation itself but it does allow you to raise the issues, present the problems and at least to establish who amongst the audience could provide valuable input to your decision making.

Finally, presentations can be fun. They are your chance to speak your mind, to strut your stuff and to tell the people what the world is really like. While you hold the stage, the audience is bound by good manners to sit still and watch the performance. As a manager concerned with getting things done your view of words should be pragmatic rather than philosophical.

Thus, words mean not what the dictionary says they do but rather what the speaker intended. Suppose your manager gives to you an instruction which contains an ambiguity which neither of you notice and which results in you producing entirely the wrong product.

Thus, a "dry" country lacks either water or alcohol; "suspenders" keep up either stockings or trousers pants ; a "funny" meeting is either humorous or disconcerting; a "couple" is either a few or exactly two. If you recognize that there is a potential misunderstanding, you must stop the conversation and ask for the valid interpretation. As with all effective communication, you should decide in advance on the purpose of the conversation and the plan for achieving it.

There is no alternative to this. Some people are proficient at "thinking on their feet" - but this is generally because they already have clear understanding of the context and their own goals. Time management is one of those skills no one teaches you in school but you have to learn.

It doesn't matter how smart you are if you can't organize information well enough to take it in. And it doesn't matter how skilled you are if procrastination keeps you from getting your work done. The time management is very effective for supervisory positions. Supervisory positions can be very stressful and overwhelming when specific deadlines need to be met.

Leaders need to be able to handle tasks and assignments in a timely manner. Time is similar to finances and both need to be budgeted wisely. Leading people requires that the leader must understand the values, personality, perception and attitudes of the people. As an individual you act differently from another individual because of your values, personality, perception and attitudes. This is a very important factor to be understood in relation to the other person who may be your superior or subordinate.

Let us carry out the following activity in order to understand each of these factors. For example, given below are certain work values. You may like to rank the three important values you would like to pursue at work. The ranking should be done in order of importance you attach to them.

It is also a conglomeration of the forces within the individual. Our personality is determined by our physical constitution, beliefs and values in our culture and the situations which have unique influences on us.

Hearing, seeing or smelling or feeling or tasting a stimulus come before we process and interpret it.

Library and Information Science (339)

The MLIS program can be tailored to meet the needs of individual students. A variety of transcript designated concentrations and areas of specialization are available which give students the opportunity to customize their elective coursework and focus their studies on a special area of interest. This accreditation is important to you as a student as many Library and Information Centers only hire graduates of ALA accredited programs. Our online program is one of the longest running online MLIS programs in the nation. SOIS is also recognized for excellence in several individual categories.

This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences LIS in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. It also includes a case study regarding tracing information seeking behavior and usage on a multimedia website.

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Electives 15 credit hours - students may select from a range of elective courses ranging from children's literature to information technology to archival theory and practice. One of the five electives must be a technology course: LIS , , or Successful completion of the comprehensive exam in LIS is required to receive the master's degree. Distance students with intent of returning or moving to any state other than Mississippi should be aware of the unique requirements for that state.

Richard E.

Голос Фонтейна по-прежнему звучал спокойно, деловито: - Можете ли вы его остановить. Джабба тяжко вздохнул и повернулся к экрану. - Не знаю. Все зависит от того, что ударило в голову автору.  - Он привлек внимание к тексту на экране.

Foundations of library and information science

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