File Name: cranial nerves list and functions .zip
The cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves that can be seen on the ventral bottom surface of the brain. Some of these nerves bring information from the sense organs to the brain; other cranial nerves control muscles; other cranial nerves are connected to glands or internal organs such as the heart and lungs. Can't remember the names of the cranial nerves?
A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes.
V 1 ophthalmic nerve is located in the superior orbital fissure V 2 maxillary nerve is located in the foramen rotundum. V 3 mandibular nerve is located in the foramen ovale. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Your cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that connect your brain to different parts of your head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 of them, each named for their function or structure. This is based off their location from front to back. Their functions are usually categorized as being either sensory or motor.
Sensory nerves are involved with your senses, such as smell, hearing, and touch. Motor nerves control the movement and function of muscles or glands. The olfactory nerve transmits sensory information to your brain regarding smells that you encounter.
When you inhale aromatic molecules, they dissolve in a moist lining at the roof of your nasal cavity, called the olfactory epithelium.
This stimulates receptors that generate nerve impulses that move to your olfactory bulb. Your olfactory bulb is an oval-shaped structure that contains specialized groups of nerve cells. From the olfactory bulb, nerves pass into your olfactory tract, which is located below the frontal lobe of your brain. Nerve signals are then sent to areas of your brain concerned with memory and recognition of smells.
The optic nerve is the sensory nerve that involves vision. When light enters your eye, it comes into contact with special receptors in your retina called rods and cones. Rods are found in large numbers and are highly sensitive to light. Cones are present in smaller numbers. They have a lower light sensitivity than rods and are more involved with color vision. The information received by your rods and cones is transmitted from your retina to your optic nerve.
Once inside your skull, both of your optic nerves meet to form something called the optic chiasm. At the optic chiasm, nerve fibers from half of each retina form two separate optic tracts. Through each optic tract, the nerve impulses eventually reach your visual cortex, which then processes the information. Your visual cortex is located in the back part of your brain. The oculomotor nerve has two different motor functions: muscle function and pupil response.
This nerve originates in the front part of your midbrain, which is a part of your brainstem. It moves forward from that area until it reaches the area of your eye sockets. The trochlear nerve controls your superior oblique muscle. It emerges from the back part of your midbrain. Like your oculomotor nerve, it moves forward until it reaches your eye sockets, where it stimulates the superior oblique muscle. The trigeminal nerve is the largest of your cranial nerves and has both sensory and motor functions.
The trigeminal nerve originates from a group of nuclei — which is a collection of nerve cells — in the midbrain and medulla regions of your brainstem. Eventually, these nuclei form a separate sensory root and motor root. The sensory root of your trigeminal nerve branches into the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions. The motor root of your trigeminal nerve passes below the sensory root and is only distributed into the mandibular division.
This muscle is involved in outward eye movement. For example, you would use it to look to the side. This nerve, also called the abducent nerve, starts in the pons region of your brainstem. It eventually enters your eye socket, where it controls the lateral rectus muscle. The facial nerve provides both sensory and motor functions, including:.
Your facial nerve has a very complex path. It originates in the pons area of your brainstem, where it has both a motor and sensory root. Eventually, the two nerves fuse together to form the facial nerve. Both within and outside of your skull, the facial nerve branches further into smaller nerve fibers that stimulate muscles and glands or provide sensory information.
Your vestibulocochlear nerve has sensory functions involving hearing and balance. It consists of two parts, the cochlear portion and vestibular portion:. The cochlear and vestibular portions of your vestibulocochlear nerve originate in separate areas of the brain.
The cochlear portion starts in an area of your brain called the inferior cerebellar peduncle. The vestibular portion begins in your pons and medulla. Both portions combine to form the vestibulocochlear nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve has both motor and sensory functions, including:. The glossopharyngeal nerve originates in a part of your brainstem called the medulla oblongata.
It eventually extends into your neck and throat region. The vagus nerve is a very diverse nerve. It has both sensory and motor functions, including:. Out of all of the cranial nerves, the vagus nerve has the longest pathway. It extends from your head all the way into your abdomen. It originates in the part of your brainstem called the medulla.
Your accessory nerve is a motor nerve that controls the muscles in your neck. These muscles allow you to rotate, flex, and extend your neck and shoulders. The spinal portion originates in the upper part of your spinal cord.
The cranial part starts in your medulla oblongata. These parts meet briefly before the spinal part of the nerve moves to supply the muscles of your neck while the cranial part follows the vagus nerve. Your hypoglossal nerve is the 12th cranial nerve which is responsible for the movement of most of the muscles in your tongue. It starts in the medulla oblongata and moves down into the jaw, where it reaches the tongue. The amygdaloid body is also known as the amygdaloid nucleus. This is an oval structure located within the temporal lobe of the human brain.
In the brain, oxygenated blood travels through an extensive and central cerebral arterial circle. This network is called the circle of Willis. The anterior cerebral artery supplies most of the superior-medial parietal lobes and portions of the frontal lobes with fresh blood. Blood supply to…. The occipital bone is the trapezoidal-shaped bone found at the lower-back area of the cranium.
The occipital is cupped like a saucer in order to house…. The thalamus is located deep within the brain in the cerebral cortex, adjacent to the hypothalamus. It is a symmetrical structure, situated on top of…. The superior colliculus refers to the rostral front bump on the lateral side part of the midbrain. It is, in fact, a pair of two colliculi….
The posterior pericallosal branch of the posterior cerebral artery is one of the arteries serving the brain. In some individuals it may be absent…. The middle cerebral artery MCA is the largest of the three major arteries that channels fresh blood to the brain.
It branches off the internal…. In the central nervous system, there are three different layers that cover the spinal cord and brain.
These are called the meninges, and their three…. The sigmoid sinus is a dural venous sinus that lies deep within the human head, and just below the brain. A dural sinus is a channel that lies between…. The 12 Cranial Nerves. Medically reviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph. Olfactory nerve II. Optic nerve III. Oculomotor nerve IV. Trochlear nerve V. Trigeminal nerve VI. Abducens nerve VII. Facial nerve VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerve IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve X. Vagus nerve XI. Accessory nerve XII.
Hypoglossal nerve Cranial nerve diagram What are cranial nerves? Keep reading to learn more about each of the 12 cranial nerves and how they function. Olfactory nerve.
Your cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that connect your brain to different parts of your head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 of them, each named for their function or structure. This is based off their location from front to back. Their functions are usually categorized as being either sensory or motor. Sensory nerves are involved with your senses, such as smell, hearing, and touch. Motor nerves control the movement and function of muscles or glands.
The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement. Each nerve has a name that reflects its function and a number according to its location in the brain. When a person inhales fragrant molecules, olfactory receptors within the nasal passage send the impulses to the cranial cavity, which then travel to the olfactory bulb. Specialized olfactory neurons and nerve fibers meet with other nerves, which pass into the olfactory tract.
Metrics details. The human body has 12 pairs of cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most frequent pathologies that may involve cranial nerves and recognize their typical characteristics of imaging.
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CRANIAL NERVES. Number. Name. Function. Nucleus. Peripheral Ganglia. Peripheral Target. I olfactory smell anterior olfactory nucleus olfactory bulb.