File Name: on gauge invariance and vacuum polarization .zip
This paper is based on the elementary remark that the extraction of gauge invariant results from a formally gauge invariant theory is ensured if one employs methods of solution that involve only gauge covariant quantities. We illustrate this statement in connection with the problem of vacuum polarization by a prescribed electromagnetic field. The vacuum current of a charged Dirac field, which can be expressed in terms of the Green's function of that field, implies an addition to the action integral of the electromagnetic field.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Schwinger Published This paper is based on the elementary remark that the extraction of gauge invariant results from a formally gauge invariant theory is ensured if one employs methods of solution that involve only gauge covariant quantities. We illustrate this statement in connection with the problem of vacuum polarization by a prescribed electromagnetic 6eld. Save to Library. Create Alert.
Learn more. Dan Solomon Unlisted. Citations per year. Abstract: arXiv. Note: 26 pages.
Based on order one-loop effective Lagrangian derived from the 2-point photon vertex in quantum electrodynamics, we obtain a quantum modified Maxwell equations, and the classical expression of retarded potential is consequently modified by these equations. The results indicate that, due to the time-space non-locality of vacuum polarization, the vacuum polarization current is delayed relative to the field variation and induces a series of additional retarded potentials except for the classical part of retarded potential. Particularly, compared to the classical potential, these additional potentials are further retarded. Because the retard potential is the base of theory of electromagnetic radiation, the results of this work are of great value to the studies of quantum effect in ultra-intense electromagnetic radiation. The EM Academy piers. Authors Reviewers. Submit Search.
The course also covers the concepts of topological insulators and superconductors that have become an important part of the vocabulary of modern condensed matter physics. The goals of this review are to briefly introduce the physics of topological insulators to a chemical audience. Here we predict the first material realization. Condensed matter physics theory. A Brief Guide for Beginners.
The Schwinger effect is a predicted physical phenomenon whereby matter is created by a strong electric field. It is also referred to as the Sauter—Schwinger effect , Schwinger mechanism , or Schwinger pair production. It is a prediction of quantum electrodynamics QED in which electron-positron pairs are spontaneously created in the presence of an electric field, thereby causing the decay of the electric field. The effect was originally proposed by Fritz Sauter in  and further important work was carried out by Werner Heisenberg and Hans Heinrich Euler in ,  though it was not until that Julian Schwinger gave a complete theoretical description.
Don't have an account? This chapter chronicles Schwinger's research in relation to Green's function, his first trip to Europe, and his work on the gauge invariance and vacuum polarization, the quantum action principle, electrodynamic displacements of energy levels, quantum field theory, and condensed matter physics. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.
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Abstract We improve on a method to compute the fermion contribution to the vacuum polarization energy of string-like configurations in a non-Abelian gauge theory.
One of the biggest problems in cosmology today lies in the discrepancy between the high-z calculated and measured value of the Hubble constant H 0. Slides PDF. The Maldacena conjecture suggests that superconformal symmetry plays an important role in holographic theories. Indeed we show that the combination of superconformal quantum mechanics and light front holographic QCD leads to important constraints on the dynamics, which are well compatible with the hadron spectra. We demonstrate that despite a strong suppressing effect of vertex constraints inherited from the thermalground state in the deconfining phase, radiative corrections to the thermal, free-quasiparticle pressure arise at any loop order. Investigating if the hierarchical suppression with increasing loop orders that is observed up to two-loop extends to higher orders, we calculate a particular three-loop correction, which is suppressed close to the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition.
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Authors: Schwinger, J. Publication Date: Fri Jun 01 EDT Research Org.: Originating Research Org. not identified. OSTI Identifier: .
Его, пожалуй, могли бы спасти в стране с высокоразвитой медициной, но в Испании у него нет никаких шансов. Два человека…. И вот Халохот уже за спиной жертвы. Как танцор, повторяющий отточенные движения, он взял чуть вправо, положил руку на плечо человеку в пиджаке цвета хаки, прицелился и… выстрелил. Раздались два приглушенных хлопка. Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать. Быстрым движением Халохот подтащил его к скамье, стараясь успеть, прежде чем на спине проступят кровавые пятна.
Куда держишь путь.
Никакого вируса. Выслушай меня внимательно, - попросил Стратмор. Сьюзан была ошеломлена. ТРАНСТЕКСТ еще никогда не сталкивался с шифром, который не мог бы взломать менее чем за один час. Обычно же открытый текст поступал на принтер Стратмора за считанные минуты.
Прикрыв рукой глаза, он выругался и встал возле собора в маленьком дворике, образованном высокой каменной стеной, западной стороной башни Гиральда и забором из кованого железа. За открытыми воротами виднелась площадь, на которой не было ни души, а за ней, вдали, - стены Санта-Круса. Беккер не мог исчезнуть, тем более так. Халохот оглядел дворик.
Или это его подвинули.
We obtain approximate, gauge invariant expressions for the effective interaction with the problem of vacuum polarization by a prescribed electromagnetic field.