File Name: digital apollo human and machine in spaceflight .zip
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David A. The MIT Press. As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine.
In Digital Apollo , engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.
Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives.
Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight — a lunar landing — traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space.
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Media Digital Apollo. Add Book To Favorites. Format ebook. Author David A. Release 30 September Subjects Technology Nonfiction.
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The subtitle of this book, rather than the title, gives the best description of the volume's contents. Digital Apollo deals with the ways in which the digital computer shaped the role of the Apollo astronauts. It is part of the growing literature on the space programs of the s that strives to understand how these projects operated, how individuals and institutions defined their positions in them, and how specific factors contributed to their success. Mindell's study builds upon three very different kinds of books. In particular, Mindell analyzes how inertial guidance computers in general, and the Apollo Guidance Computer in particular, shaped the roles of the astronauts. As chronicled by both Mindell and Wolfe, the early astronauts wanted to fly the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo spacecraft. They wanted to be at the controls when their rocket left the pad, to direct their machine through its flight, and to guide the spacecraft through its final landing.
Although the US intelligence community was not surprised, ordinary Americans were, and the two launches demonstrated without any doubt that the Soviet Union had a lead over the US not only in satellites, but in booster rockets, which could deliver weapons as well. Among the responses to Sputnik was the founding of agencies, one an arm of the US Defense Department, the other a civilian agency. In the fifty years since their founding, one can list a remarkable number of achievements by each, but chief among those achievements are two. Kennedy in , successfully landed a dozen astronauts on the Moon and retuned them safely to Earth between and In the mids, the Internet moved rapidly from a network known only to computer scientists or other specialists, to something that was used by ordinary citizens across the industrialized world.
Nevertheless, these and many other pre-computer flyers and researchers have been woven into this book by the author, who has a remarkable grasp of aerospace and computer science. He has achieved a commendable work in this text by establishing and clarifying the role and responsibilities of man and machine over the past years—primarily as it relates to aviation and space endeavors. There was a contentious debate on how much each participant man and machine could or should play in the first lunar landing expedition. However, the implications go far beyond that aspect.
With an OverDrive account, you can save your favorite libraries for at-a-glance information about availability. Find out more about OverDrive accounts. David A. The MIT Press. As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort.
Getting to the Moon required daring programmers as well as daring astronauts. DOI: Fifty years ago, three astronauts and two digital computers took off for the Moon.
How human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight—the lunar landings of NASA's Apollo program. As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine.
The AGC provided computation and electronic interfaces for guidance, navigation, and control of the spacecraft. The AGC has a bit word length, with 15 data bits and one parity bit. Astronauts manually flew Project Gemini with control sticks , but computers flew most of Project Apollo except briefly during lunar landings. Laning Jr.
Я видел схему. Она знала, что это. Как и то, что шахта лифта защищена усиленным бетоном. Сквозь клубящийся дым Сьюзан кое-как добралась до дверцы лифта, но тут же увидела, что индикатор вызова не горит. Она принялась нажимать кнопки безжизненной панели, затем, опустившись на колени, в отчаянии заколотила в дверь и тут же замерла.
Это было одним из крупнейших достижений Стратмора. С помощью ТРАНСТЕКСТА, взломавшего шифр, ему удалось узнать о заговоре и бомбе, подложенной в школе иврита в Лос-Анджелесе. Послание террористов удалось расшифровать всего за двадцать минут до готовившегося взрыва и, быстро связавшись по телефону с кем нужно, спасти триста школьников.
What was once the essence of the future—human ventures into space and to other worlds—is now a part of history.Prettie J. 11.12.2020 at 07:39
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