File Name: intervention and reflection basic issues in medical ethics .zip
McCormick, D. Ethical choices, both minor and major, confront us everyday in the provision of health care for persons with diverse values living in a pluralistic and multicultural society.
Scenario: A professional medical writer paid by a pharmaceutical company is working with external authors to develop a review article. The medical writer performs the research required to identify requisite materials for the review article. Balance competing medical ethics in making decisions about patient care 3.
No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner— without the written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 10 09 08 Any additional questions about permissions can be submitted by e-mail to thomsonrights thomson.
He received his Ph. A nationally acclaimed bioethicist, Munson is a medical ethicist for the National Eye Institute and a consultant for the National Cancer Insti- tute. Robertson and Joseph D.
Contents xiii. Contents xv. Appel: Wanted Dead or Alive? Sheldon and S. Kishore D. Annas: The Prostitute, the Playboy, Roe v. Noonan Jr. Custer et al. Contents xvii. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. In shaping the eighth edition of this book, I have sensibly and thoroughly, we need the knowl- tried to capture both the intellectual excitement edge and perceptions of people from a variety and the great seriousness that surround of disciplines.
Even worse, it would deny I believe that everyone, whatever the level of readers the opportunity of dealing directly with knowledge or intellectual sophistication, will find proposals and arguments incompatible with their this a useful and engaging book. They reflect the range and variety of solutions. Otherwise, rational inquiry evaporates the problems we now confront and involve ethi- and power and prejudice take its place.
But more than this, the problems raised are ones so profoundly serious that they lead people to turn hopefully to philo- Chapter Structure sophical consideration in search of satisfactory Each chapter for the first four Parts of this book is resolutions.
The variety and number of these the topics and show that such consideration vary by chapter. The Readings appear next, and can be worthwhile. All are readable and after them the Decision Scenarios. Although philosophers are strongly repre- most important cases in bioethics in narrative sented, the authors also include jurists, scien- accounts. These are ones that have faced us with tists, clinical researchers, social critics, and crucial issues and shaped our thinking about practicing physicians.
The moral problems of what we believe is morally legitimate in various medicine always have scientific, social, legal, areas of clinical practice and medical and biologi- and economic aspects, and to deal with them cal research. Some of the people at the focus of the cases The Social Context sections provide infor- are familiar. Nearly everyone has heard of Terry mation relevant to understanding the current Schiavo, Jesse Gelsinger, Karen Quinlan, Jack social, political, or biomedical situation in which Kevorkian, and Dax Cowart.
Their names have issues are being debated. They differ from Case been in the headlines and on the news many Presentations in offering a broader and deeper times—some as recently as last week, others view of problems such as the funding of health more than three decades ago. They raise for over-the-counter sales. The image of If we hope to raise the level of public discus- Terri Schiavo lying in bed, her limbs sometimes sion of an issue and genuinely inform the life of moving and her mouth occasionally forming a our society and move toward solving important jerky smile, for example, makes us all think hard problems, we must understand and consider the about when or whether life support ought to be relevant scientific and medical facts, as well as discontinued and whether active euthanasia is the social situation in which the issue arises.
The French woman The ongoing debate over embryonic stem who received a partial face transplant makes us cells provides a good illustration of the impor- wonder when we are justified in using the powers tance of information. No one can make a rea- of transplant medicine.
Some focus on defining episodes in the search without knowing what embryonic stem history of clinical research or social practice. The debate is not Study and the hardly less controversial Willow- taking place in a vacuum, however. Policies and brook Hospital Experiment. The central concern laws have been proposed and criticized, and any- of such cases is usually with the way groups or one wanting to participate in the debate needs individuals were treated by researchers and by some information about the current situation.
Or it may be the way a particular therapy Social Context sections, to be blunt but has developed and raised issues. They provide the variety of game. Real lives are often at stake, and real people basic arguments and viewpoints relevant to the may suffer or die.
Although In the Briefing Session in each chapter, I each selection stands alone, I have tried to repre- discuss some of the specific moral problems that sent opposing positions in a fair and evenhanded occur in medical and biological practice, research, fashion. The multiplicity of topics addressed in and policy making.
Finally, I suggest the point of view. The arguments are offered to ways moral theories or principles might be used prompt inquiry, not to make it unnecessary. My sug- matic presentations of situations in which moral gestions, in any event, are offered only as starting questions are crucial or in which ethical or social points in the search for satisfactory answers.
Preface xxi. Thus, the Decision Scenarios tions sections being independent holds also for are really exercises in bioethics that can direct the components of the chapters—the Case Pre- and structure class discussion. I have written sion Scenarios were sometimes explicitly tied to and arranged everything to stand alone.
This particular moral theories or to principles argued makes it possible for a reader to turn to any for in the Readings. I took a different approach chapter and pick and choose among the materi- this time, because a number of people said that als presented. The questions Reading the Briefing Session of a chapter following each scenario are intended to prompt may deepen the understanding of the issues in- reflection and discussion, so the answers are volved in say paying for health care, but one likely to draw from the arguments in the Read- might choose to read only the Case Presentation ings, the information in the Briefing Session, discussing the Canadian system.
Or, instead, one and relevant moral theories and principles. An might consider only the proposals and arguments instructor can easily follow the old model by presented in the Readings. The components of the book For some readers, the most important feature of can be skipped or combined in a variety of ways, this book may be Part V: Foundations of Bioethics.
In the first section, I sketch the basics of five This is a useful feature for those using the major ethical theories and indicate how they book as a text. Some instructors, for example, might be used to answer particular moral ques- may want to start with Part V: Foundations of tions in medicine and research.
In the second Bioethics and lay out moral principles or theo- section, I present and illustrate several major ries; others may prefer to refer to that section moral principles.
The principles are ones en- only in the course of discussing some particular dorsed or at least expressed in practice by topic. Still others may choose to ignore it com- virtually all ethical theories. This or are consistent with particular theories. In the book offers so much flexibility that it is compati- third section, I present the fundamental ideas ble with almost any path an instructor chooses.
Tables of Contents The main purpose in these sections is to give This is a big book and includes a wide variety of those without a background in ethics the infor- topics and materials.
To make it easier to navigate, mation they need to frame and evaluate moral in addition to the main Table of Contents, I have arguments about the issues in bioethics. The included a Contents section at the beginning of three parts of the Foundations section are com- each chapter.
In addition to listing the Case plementary, but they are also self-contained and Presentations and Social Contexts, the section also may be read separately. The aim of each and of spells out the major subheadings of the Briefing all three together is to help prepare readers for Session. The Contents pages are designed to independent inquiry into bioethics.
This book has a web page at that site, with The Briefing Sessions have been revised in supplemental materials, and it is there that any dozens of ways to take into account changes needed corrections will be posted. By the way, sometimes even the most Content Changes in the recent statistics may be several years old. Preface xxiii. I am under no illusion that the book has siblings, the Donald Herbert case, progress toward achieved perfection, and I would still appreciate an AIDS vaccine, the baby starved by vegan comments or suggestions from those who use parents, and several others.
Communications Decision Scenarios, and a fair number are new to may be e-mailed to me or sent to my university this edition. The new ones represent recent cases address Department of Philosophy, University or issues that are not presented elsewhere in the of Missouri—St.
Louis, St. Louis, MO The addition of new Decision Scenarios I owe so many intellectual debts that I must meant that some others had to be dropped. This means that those who The Readings in this edition maintain the invested their help in this project have to settle scope of those in the last. Twenty-seven readings for an acknowledgment that is less than they are are completely new.
Included are selections by rightly owed. My greatest debt is to those authors without attempting to be systematic or exhaus- who allowed their work to be printed here. Anyone who teaches bioethics wants The book is better because of her. I thank Rebecca enough flexibility to arrange a course in the way Munson for reminding me that there is more to she or he sees fit.
I have attempted to offer that life than the making of books, yet I hope most flexibility, while at the same time supplying readers fondly that she finds success and satisfaction in with the kind of information and support they her own bookmaking efforts. I have not always listened to those who have This book, with its Case Presentations, Brief- taken the trouble to warn and advise me, and ing Sessions, Social Context sections, Decision this is reason enough for me to claim the errors Scenarios, and Foundations of Bioethics section, here as my own.
Even their criticisms were tempered by a sympathetic understanding of the Ronald Munson difficulty of producing a book of this scope that University of Missouri—St.
Louis, attempts to do so many things. Chapter 1 Research Ethics and Informed Consent 3. Isabelle Denoire was a thirty-eight-year-old, divorced, and the dog tried to rouse her by biting and clawing unemployed mother of two living in the town of Va- at her face. On a Sunday evening No matter which version is correct, the result in May , Denoire had an argument with her sev- was the same. The daughter, angry, left the tore the flesh off her nose and chin. How she was house to spend the night with her grandmother.
After discovered has not been made public, but she even- this point, many facts become hazy and disputed. To achieve this, she A short time after Denoire was stabilized med- took a couple of pills to help her sleep and went to ically and her injuries treated, she was examined by bed.
But this account contradicted an earlier account Dr. Dubernard, how- It would have to be done without great delay, how- ever, continued to insist that his patient had made no ever, because once scar tissue was fully formed, a effort to commit suicide. Scar tis- According to Dr. Dubernard, after Denoire took sue lacks blood vessels and so would have to be cut the sleeping drug, she woke up sometime during the away even to start the transplant.
Bioethics Case Studies Pdf. Case: Willowbrook Experiments. Distribute copies of Student Handout 5. A case is a scenario that gives you the opportunity to identify problems and recommend a course of action in a business situation. A quick overview of the most popular formatting styles for your case study.
All professions can report critical incidents anonymously, low-threshold, and without sanctions Content type: Research article. Published on: 8 March
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No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner— without the written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 10 09 08 Any additional questions about permissions can be submitted by e-mail to thomsonrights thomson. He received his Ph. A nationally acclaimed bioethicist, Munson is a medical ethicist for the National Eye Institute and a consultant for the National Cancer Insti- tute. Robertson and Joseph D. Contents xiii.
Секундой позже произошло столкновение, и Стратмор, сбитый с ног, кубарем покатился по кафельному полу шифровалки. Это был Хейл, примчавшийся на звук пейджера. Сьюзан услышала стук беретты, выпавшей из руки Стратмора. На мгновение она словно приросла к месту, не зная, куда бежать и что делать.
Нам придется ее отложить. - Что-о? - Сьюзан окончательно проснулась. - Прости. Я срочно уезжаю. Вернусь завтра. И уже утром мы сможем поехать. В нашем распоряжении будет целых два дня.
Через десять минут Беккер уже сидел в буфете АНБ, жуя сдобную булку и запивая ее клюквенным соком, в обществе очаровательной руководительницы Отделения криптографии АНБ. Ему сразу же стало ясно, что высокое положение в тридцать восемь лет в АНБ нельзя получить за красивые глаза: Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась одной из умнейших женщин, каких ему только доводилось встречать. Обсуждая шифры и ключи к ним, он поймал себя на мысли, что изо всех сил пытается соответствовать ее уровню, - для него это ощущение было новым и оттого волнующим.
Надеюсь. - Месье Клушар. - Беккер улыбнулся и достал из кармана пиджака ручку.
Или же обойти все рестораны - вдруг этот тучный немец окажется. Но и то и другое вряд ли к чему-то приведет. В его мозгу все время прокручивались слова Стратмора: Обнаружение этого кольца - вопрос национальной безопасности.
В какую-то долю секунды сознание Беккера засекло очки в металлической оправе, обратилось к памяти в поисках аналога, нашло его и, подав сигнал тревоги, потребовало принять решение. Он отбросил бесполезный мотоцикл и пустился бежать со всех ног. К несчастью для Беккера, вместо неуклюжего такси Халохот обрел под ногами твердую почву.
Бринкерхофф положил руки ей на плечи. - Мидж, ну пожалуйста, успокойся. Ты знаешь, что я не могу… Она фыркнула и снова повернулась к клавиатуре. - Я распечатаю список.
ГЛАВА 77 Стратмор остановился на площадке у своего кабинета, держа перед собой пистолет. Сьюзан шла следом за ним, размышляя, по-прежнему ли Хейл прячется в Третьем узле. Свет от монитора Стратмора отбрасывал на них жутковатую тень.
- Она выдержала паузу. - Постараюсь побыстрее. - А лучше еще быстрее. - Стратмор положил трубку.
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