File Name: 3g mobile networks architecture protocols and procedures .zip
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Cellular Communication has become an important part of our daily life. Besides using cell phones for voice communication, we are now able to access the Internet, conduct monetary transactions, send text messages etc.
UMTS uses wideband code-division multiple access W-CDMA radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. These speeds are significantly faster than the 9. The first national consumer UMTS networks launched in with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. While they suggest covering just a channel access method namely a variant of CDMA , they are actually the common names for the whole air interface standards.
It supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can also carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access.
In contrast, the competing CDMA system uses one or more available 1. W-CDMA systems are widely criticized for their large spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that acted relatively slowly in allocating new frequencies specifically for 3G services such as the United States.
Compatibility with CDMA would have beneficially enabled roaming on existing networks beyond Japan, since Qualcomm CDMA networks are widely deployed, especially in the Americas, with coverage in 58 countries as of [update]. However, divergent requirements resulted in the W-CDMA standard being retained and deployed globally. W-CDMA has then become the dominant technology with commercial networks in countries as of April Despite incompatibility with existing air-interface standards, late introduction and the high upgrade cost of deploying an all-new transmitter technology, W-CDMA has become the dominant standard.
From an engineering point of view, W-CDMA provides a different balance of trade-offs between cost, capacity, performance, and density [ citation needed ] ; it also promises to achieve a benefit of reduced cost for video phone handsets.
W-CDMA has been developed into a complete set of specifications, a detailed protocol that defines how a mobile phone communicates with the tower, how signals are modulated, how datagrams are structured, and system interfaces are specified allowing free competition on technology elements. Mobile User Objective System using geosynchronous satellites in place of cell towers. This strategy has been criticised for aiming to drain the cash of operators to the brink of bankruptcy in order to honour their bids or proposals.
New Zealand in August and Australia in October Though advancements in its network deployment have been delayed due to the merger with Cingular, Cingular began offering HSDPA service in December Availability only in main cities. Pricing is approx. These air interfaces are classified as TDD, because time slots can be allocated to either uplink or downlink traffic. Unlike W-CDMA, it does not need separate frequency bands for up- and downstream, allowing deployment in tight frequency bands.
In the United States, the technology have been used for public safety and government use in the New York City and a few other area. However, the main incentive for development of this Chinese-developed standard was avoiding or reducing the license fees that have to be paid to non-Chinese patent owners. While it suggests covering only a channel access method, it is actually the common name for the whole air interface specification.
This is likely primarily for practical reasons, since other 3G formats require the payment of patent fees to a large number of Western patent holders. TD-SCDMA is based on spread-spectrum technology which makes it unlikely that it will be able to completely escape the payment of license fees to western patent holders. The launch of a national TD-SCDMA network was initially projected by  but only reached large scale commercial trials with 60, users across eight cities in While TD is primarily a China-only system, it may well be exported to developing countries.
By dynamically adjusting the number of timeslots used for downlink and uplink , the system can more easily accommodate asymmetric traffic with different data rate requirements on downlink and uplink than FDD schemes. Since it does not require paired spectrum for downlink and uplink, spectrum allocation flexibility is also increased.
Using the same carrier frequency for uplink and downlink also means that the channel condition is the same on both directions, and the base station can deduce the downlink channel information from uplink channel estimates, which is helpful to the application of beamforming techniques.
This reduces the number of users in each timeslot, which reduces the implementation complexity of multiuser detection and beamforming schemes, but the non-continuous transmission also reduces coverage because of the higher peak power needed , mobility because of lower power control frequency and complicates radio resource management algorithms. The "S" in TD-SCDMA stands for "synchronous", which means that uplink signals are synchronized at the base station receiver, achieved by continuous timing adjustments.
This reduces the interference between users of the same timeslot using different codes by improving the orthogonality between the codes, therefore increasing system capacity, at the cost of some hardware complexity in achieving uplink synchronization. On February 15, , a timeline for deployment of the network in China was announced, stating pre-commercial trials would take place starting after completion of a number of test networks in select cities.
These trials ran from March to October, , but the results were apparently unsatisfactory. In early , the Chinese government instructed the dominant cellular carrier, China Mobile, to build commercial trial networks in eight cities, and the two fixed-line carriers, China Telecom and China Netcom , to build one each in two other cities. Construction of these trial networks was scheduled to finish during the fourth quarter of , but delays meant that construction was not complete until early That appeared to be an effort to make sure the new system has the financial and technical backing to succeed.
Third-generation, or 3G, technology supports Web surfing, wireless video and other services and the start of service is expected to spur new revenue growth. The technical split by MIIT has hampered the performance of China Mobile in the 3G market, with users and China Mobile engineers alike pointing to the lack of suitable handsets to use the network on.
UMTS is usually transmitted on frequencies assigned for 1G , 2G , or 3G mobile telephone service in the countries of operation. This allows the operator to more flexibly divide the usage of available spectrum according to traffic patterns. For ordinary phone service, you would expect the up-link and down-link to carry approximately equal amounts of data because every phone call needs a voice transmission in either direction , but Internet-oriented traffic is more frequently one-way.
For example, when browsing a website, the user will send commands, which are short, to the server, but the server will send whole files, that are generally larger than those commands, in response.
TDD technologies open up the usage of left-over unpaired spectrum. Additionally, spectrum around the 3. Deployments in the US thus far have been limited. It has been selected for a public safety support network used by emergency responders in New York,  but outside of some experimental systems, notably one from Nextel , thus far the WiMAX standard appears to have gained greater traction as a general mobile Internet access system.
A variety of Internet-access systems exist which provide broadband speed access to the net. RRC protocol handles connection establishment, measurements, radio bearer services, security and handover decisions. MAC handles the scheduling of data on air interface depending on higher layer RRC configured parameters. The set of properties related to data transmission is called Radio Bearer RB.
Security includes two procedures: integrity and ciphering. Ciphering ensures that no one listens to your data on the air interface. This allows a simple migration for existing GSM operators. However, the migration path to UMTS is still costly: while much of the core infrastructure is shared with GSM, the cost of obtaining new spectrum licenses and overlaying UMTS at existing towers is high.
The network layer OSI 3 includes the Radio Resource Management protocol RRM that manages the bearer channels between the mobile terminals and the fixed network, including the handovers. It has been suggested that these huge license fees have the character of a very large tax paid on future income expected many years down the road. In any event, the high prices paid put some European telecom operators close to bankruptcy most notably KPN.
Over the last few years some operators have written off some or all of the license costs. Bell and Telus share the network. This company is also co-owned by Hutchison 3G Australia , and this is the primary network used by their customers. In India, BSNL has started its 3G services since October , beginning with the larger cities and then expanding over to smaller cities.
Roaming charges are usually significantly higher than regular usage charges. Most UMTS licensees consider ubiquitous, transparent global roaming an important issue. To enable a high degree of interoperability, UMTS phones usually support several different frequencies in addition to their GSM fallback. A UMTS phone and network must support a common frequency to work together.
Because of the frequencies used, early models of UMTS phones designated for the United States will likely not be operable elsewhere and vice versa. This is a global standard of identification, and enables a network to identify and authenticate the U SIM in the phone.
Roaming agreements between networks allow for calls to a customer to be redirected to them while roaming and determine the services and prices available to the user.
In addition to user subscriber information and authentication information, the U SIM provides storage space for phone book contact. Handsets can store their data on their own memory or on the U SIM card which is usually more limited in its phone book contact information.
Japan was the first country to adopt 3G technologies, and since they had not used GSM previously they had no need to build GSM compatibility into their handsets and their 3G handsets were smaller than those available elsewhere. All of the major 2G phone manufacturers that are still in business are now manufacturers of 3G phones. The early 3G handsets and modems were specific to the frequencies required in their country, which meant they could only roam to other countries on the same 3G frequency though they can fall back to the older GSM standard.
Canada and USA have a common share of frequencies, as do most European countries. Some software installs itself from the modem, so that in some cases absolutely no knowledge of technology is required to get online in moments. Using a phone that supports 3G and Bluetooth 2. Some smartphones can also act as a mobile WLAN access point. Nokia has recently released a range of phones that have Pentaband 3G coverage, including the N8 and E7.
Many other phones are offering more than one band which still enables extensive roaming. This and CDMA's narrower bandwidth requirements make it easier to deploy in existing spectra. A standard UMTS system would saturate that spectrum. In many markets however, the co-existence issue is of little relevance, as legislative hurdles exist to co-deploying two standards in the same licensed slice of spectrum.
Instead, it is used as a temporary solution preceding UMTS roll-out or as a complement for rural areas. However, the lack of vendors' support is preventing it from being a real competitor.
While DECT is technically capable of competing with UMTS and other cellular networks in densely populated, urban areas, it has only been deployed for domestic cordless phones and private in-house networks. They can remain in the network and be used in dual network operation where 2G and 3G networks co-exist while network migration and new 3G terminals become available for use in the network. SGSN handles all the packet switched operations and transfers all the data in the network.
As is the case with GSM today [ when? In its early days [ when? In most networks around the world this is no longer an issue. For fully-fledged UMTS incorporating video on demand features, one base station needed to be set up every 1—1.
This has led to increasing rollout of the lower-band networks by operators since Apple Inc. As battery and network technology improve, this issue is diminishing. As early as , it was known that carrier networks can be used to surreptitiously gather user location information. In December , news broke that SS7's very own functions can be repurposed for surveillance, because of its lax security, in order to listen to calls in real time or to record encrypted calls and texts for later decryption, or to defraud users and cellular carriers.
UMTS uses wideband code-division multiple access W-CDMA radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. These speeds are significantly faster than the 9. The first national consumer UMTS networks launched in with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. While they suggest covering just a channel access method namely a variant of CDMA , they are actually the common names for the whole air interface standards. It supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can also carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access.
In India, the mobile subscriber baser is increasing at a phenomenal rate. After the successful adoption of Second Generation (2G) Technology GSM and G.
Home Login My Account. Cart 0. Change Location. By author : Juha Korhonen.
This review paper presents within a common framework the mobile station positioning methods applied in 2G, 3G, and 4G cellular networks, as well as the structure of the related 3GPP technical specifications. The evolution path through the generations is explored in three steps at each level: first, the new network elements supporting localization features are introduced; then, the standard localization methods are described; finally, the protocols providing specific support to mobile station positioning are studied. To allow a better understanding, this paper also brings a brief review of the cellular networks evolution paths.
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3G Mobile Networks. Architecture, Protocols and Procedures. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Sumit Kasera. Senior Technical Leader, Hughes Software Systems. Gurgaon.